2Stem-Changing Verbs What is a stem changing verb? Remember that a verb has two parts:1) the stem 2) the “ar”/”er”/”ir” ending.Example:Escribir – to write (cross out the ending “er” and what is left is the stem.escribirStem = escrib ir = endingIn a stem changing verb, the stem changes though the endings follow the regular “ar”/”er”/or “ir” pattern.
3Stem-Changing VerbsThere are 4 different types of stem changing verbs:e-ie stem changerse – i stem changerso-ue stem changersu – ue stem changersLet’s take a look at e-ie stem changers and how to conjugate them:Querer = to want. It is an e-ie stem changing verb. It also has the endings for “er” verbs.
4Querer (e-ie) – to want How to conjugate: Cross of the “er” ending and you are left with the stem “quer”. Because querer is an e-ie stem changer, we have to change the “e” in the stem to “ie” before we add our endings.IMPORTANT NOTE: Stem changing verbs NEVER EVER change their stem in the NOSOTROS/VOSOTROS forms of the verb.Yo quiero = I wantTú quieres = you wantél/ella/usted quiere =he/she/you wantnosotros/as QUERemos = we wantEllos/ellas/ustedes quieren=They/you guys want
5Let’s Practice conjugating an “e-ie” verb cerrar – to close Yo Tú él/ella/usted Nosotros/as Ellos/ellas/ustedescierro = I closecierras = you (fr) closecierra = he/she closes/you (fml)close.cerramos = we closecierran = they/you all close
6Boot VerbsStem-changing verbs are often referred to as “boot verbs”. This is because the forms of the verb that change the stem make the shape of a boot
7pensar – to think (e – ie stem change) singularpluralYo piensonosotros/as PENSamosTú piensasvosotros/as PENsaísél/ellausted piensaellos/ellasustedes piensan
9¿Tú quieres mirar la television o leer un libro? IMPORTANT Note: When one verb follows another, the FIRST VERB is conjugated and the second verb is in the INFINITIVE form.EXAMPLES:¿Tú quieres mirar la television o leer un libro?Do you want to watch TV or to read a book?Paula prefiere llevar el vestido azul.Paula prefers to wear the blue dress.Ella empieza estudiar sus apuntes.She begins to study her notes.
10Let’s review - Steps to conjugating a stem-changing verb Cross off AR/ER/ or IR from the infinitive.Write the pronouns (yo, tú, etc…)Change the stem to the changed stem in everything EXCEPT NOSOTROS AND VOSOTROS.4) Add the AR/ER/ or IR endings (depending on the type ofverb.5) Translate pronouns and all forms of the verb into English.Now you are done!!! If you did it correctly, the stem changed forms of the verb are shaped like a boot.
11e ie o ue e i As stated earlier: There are 4 types of stem-changing verbs:e-ie/e-i/o-ue. Here are 3 types of them….e iepensar = to thinkquerer = to wantcerrar = to closeentender = to understandpreferir = to preferempezar = to starto uealmorzar = to eat lunchpoder = to be able/canencontrar = to finddormir = to sleepvolver = to returne iservir = to servepedir = to orderseguir = to followcompetir = to compete
12There is only ONE “u-ue” verb. It is the verb jugar – to play. Yo juego nosotros JUGamosTú juegasél/ella/usted juega ellos/ellas/ustedes juegan
13Vamos a practicar:Conjugate the following stem-changing verbs. When done, draw a boot around the ones that changed the stem (everything EXCEPT NOSOTROS/VOSOTROS)Remember – the er/ir/ar endings will remain the same as you have previously learned.E IE EMPEZAR = TO BEGINE I SERVIR = TO SERVEO UE DORMIR = TO SLEEP