Presentation on theme: "Meeting Human needs with Plants"— Presentation transcript:
1 Meeting Human needs with Plants Grain CropsMeeting Human needs with Plants
2 Objectives:Name Grain Crops, grain uses, and leading grain production statesDescribe how to select grain crops and varietiesExplain cultural requirements of major grain crops, including corn, wheat, rice, and grain sorghumName and describe cultural practices with minor and emerging grain crops, including amaranth, barley, oats, quinoa, rye, teff, triticale, and wild rice
3 Crops and Use: Grain- the seed of a cereal grain plant Kernel- part of an individual grain within the seed coat (contents provide nutrients for human and livestock feed)
4 Grain crops grown:Major grain crops in the U.S. – Corn, Wheat , and RiceOther grain crops in the U.S. - oats, barley, rye, and grain sorghumMinor grain crops in the U.S.- amaranth, buckwheat, millet, quinoa, teff, triticale, and wild rice
5 Grain use: Grown for human food primarily Animal feed Manufacturing of productsAlternative fuel sources
6 Selecting crops and varieties: Most have more than one varietySelecting crops depends on 5 areas – climate, soil and water, market, technology, and personal skills and preferencesTo plant or not to plant ?
7 Climate average weather condition over a period of time Crop variety selection should focus on climate as a factorClimate affects the number of growing days in a regionSome crop varieties need a longer growing season of warm weatherOther crops such as winter wheat can survive winter an mature in the spring
8 Soil and Watermust be within the range of the requirements of the crops to be grown. Crop variety selection should focus on soil and water as a factorSoil fertility and moisture content of the soil have a huge impact on the productivity and the quality of crop productionCertain crop varieties require large amounts of water availability and in turn a soil with good water holding capacity, like rice, it has to be flooded during much of the growing season.
9 Marketgrain crop sales depend on a market to be sold if you have no market your crops are uselessKnow where I could sell some corn?Nope, got any Wheat?
10 Technologythe use of science or the products of science in the growing of a grain cropEquipmentFertilizerImproved seedPest controlOther technology such as good roads, crop consultants, cell phones, and computers
11 Skills and preferences your background and experience should help guide your crop variety choice along with other considerations:I knew I shouldn’t have planted those soybeans under this bridge!
12 Corn production:Corn is much more important to the U.S. than anywhere else in the world because we produce near half of the entire worlds corn supply about 70mil acres worth every year
13 Types of corn:Dent corn- major type grown for grain (aka field corn) flat grains with an indention in the crownFlint corn- rounded grains hard outer cover, soft interiorFloury corn- soft corn can be white, blue, or other shades of colorsSweet corn- planted for human food, high sugar content and lower starch contentPopcorn- grown commercially for popcorn market, harvested in the fall when it has matured and the moisture content is low, the little moisture inside the grains turns to steam when heated which causes the kernel to explode.
14 Varieties Corn varieties sold for large scale production are hybrids Bred for local conditionsVary in height, number of ears per stalk, days to maturity. Etc.This is very cornfusing!
15 PlantingTiming insures crop germination, growth, and harvest within a limited time frameSoil temperature is also a factor, must be above 50° F at a depth of 2”
16 Degree days(Growing Degree Days) Measure of the temperature requirements for the best crop growth.The maximum temp. + The minimum temp. in a day / 2 – 50Low of 60° F high of 86° F the GDD would be:= 146 / 2 = 73 – 50 = 23 GDD
17 SeedbedEarth prepared for seeding using a moldboard or chisel plow and followed by a disc harrowRows planted at around 30 inches (2.5 ft) apart 2 inches deepDisc harrowMoldboard plowChisel plow
18 Plant population Between 24k and 32k is normal Ft/ac divided by row spacing divide by desired number of plants yields seed drop spacing43,560 / 2.5 = 17,424 / 32,000 = 05.5 inches apartHey stop crowding me! Stay in your own row!
19 Fertilization: Good yields require nutrients especially corn Soil test should be taken to determine the need for soil amendmentsWe’ll have the Nitrogen please
20 Pest Control IPM should be used to control pests Common pests include: weeds, insects, nematodes, diseasesCan be somewhat controlled by planting resistant varieties
21 Harvesting Should be timed for maximum yield Alfatoxins could be a problem during storage if humidity is too high, this is a poison produced by a fungus and can be deadly in large amounts
22 Wheat production: Most important cereal grain crop Types grown: Types grown:Based upon time of planting, color and kernel hardnessTwo main classesSpring- planted spring, grows summer, matures fallWinter- planted fall, establishes winter, grows rapidly springSpringWinter
23 Wheat production:Color- two main classes red (predominated the U.S.) and white preferred for flour making)Hardness- determined by the endosperm allows different wheat to have different purposes.Hard Red Winter WheatHard White
24 Varieties:Wheat varieties should be selected for climate adaptation and yieldVary in height, and winter hardiness
25 Planting: Three important factors Date: season of the wheat winter or springSeedbed: conventional or no-tillSeeding: Wheat is drilled at 6in spacing, 12k to 20k seeds per lb. and generally 20 to 100 lb. per acre higher end of that figure is for grazing
26 Fertilization:Good yields require nutrients and wheat responds well as it is a grassSoil test should be taken to determine the need for soil amendmentsShow me the nitrogen!
27 Pest management: IPM should be used to control pests Common pests include: insects, weeds, and diseasesCan be somewhat controlled by planting resistant varietiesCultural practices can be used to avoid certain pest
28 Harvesting:Should be timed for maximum yield wheat will be golden brownShattering could be a problem during harvest if the kernels fall from the head before they are harvested.Wheat in danger of shatter
29 Rice Production: Types grown: Based upon grain length in three lengths short, medium, and longTwo cultural methods of growingLow-land- planted in large low flat fieldsUp-land- planted on hill sides called rice paddies
30 Varieties:Rice varieties should be selected for climate adaptation and yieldVary in grain length, and chosen according to region that best supports their growth and productionPaddy in Japan Rice field in Arkansas
31 Planting: Three important factors Date: depends on air temp. so the water will not too hot or coldSeedbed: land needs to be leveled be loose at the surface but tight below to hold water, terraces may also be necessary to slow water and avoid erosionSeeding: Rice is drilled or broadcast on wet or dry seed beds and flooded after planting
32 Water management:Rice requires large amounts of water and is measured in acre-inchesAn acre of land is covered in water that is 1 in deepSo a field that has 3 in deep water has 3 acre in per acre
33 Fertilization:Good rice yields require fertilizer especially nitrogen and since rice is grown in an aquatic environment nitrogen is often lost to denitrification of the saturated soilSoil test should be taken to determine the need for soil amendments
34 Pest management: IPM should be used to control pests Common pests include: insects, weeds, and diseasesSome small aquatic animals also cause problemsCan be somewhat controlled by planting resistant varietiesCultural practices can be used to avoid certain pest
35 Harvesting:Should be timed after draining the fields and they have had adequate time to dry to support the weight of a combineRice kernels should be at 18 to 22 percent moisture
36 Grain sorghum (MILO) Production: Ranks fifth in worldwide grain production and 3rd in U.S. grain productionTypes grown: 4 types, grain sorghum, sweet sorghum (forage), broom corn, and grass sorghums (Johnson grass, sudan grass)4 basic colors, yellow, white, brown, mixed
37 Varieties:Varieties should be selected for climate adaptation and yield and must meet market requirementsVary and should be chosen according to region that best supports their growth and productionThose bound for human consumption must be of the white varietyStopPlease don’t eat the Johnson Grass!
38 Planting: Date: depends on soil temp. of at least 55° F April or May Seedbed: conventional or no-tillPlanting done via row planter in shallow furrows (listing) at 18 in spacing or like corn in wider spacingMaybe used as a rotated crop to increases land use and lower fertilizer cost, ex. Cotton or soybeansPlant population may be as high as 100,00 ppaWhere’s Waldo?
39 Moisture management:Grain sorghum requires large amounts of water to produce a cropGrain sorghum is very efficient user of soil moisture, uses up to 90% for a depth of 35 inY’all thirsty over there?Nope it rained last month
40 Fertilization:Grain sorghum efficiently uses existing soil nutrients, but nitrogen is often applied in split application, once before planting and once during growthSoil test should be taken to determine the need for soil amendments, before and after growing grain sorghum, because it removes nutrients so efficiently they must be replenished by the producer
41 Pest management: IPM should be used to control pests Common pests include: insects, weeds, diseases, birds, and other animalsbirds cause the largest problemsCan be somewhat controlled by planting resistant varietiesCultural practices can be used to avoid certain pests like crop rotation
42 Harvesting:Should be timed after heads have matured and the stalks have begun to drygrain should be at no more than 20 percent moisture
43 Other grain crops:Amaranth- sometimes considered a weed or an herb, high in protein and lysine. Broadleaf that produces small seeds similar to sorghum. Prefers slightly higher ph than other plants, can be combine harvested.
44 Other grain crops:Barley- very old grain crop, some use in food and feedstuff, grown primarily for hay and forage, has winter and spring varieties like wheat, can be combine harvested.
45 Other grain crops:Millet- used for grain and summer forage, Proso only variety grown in the U.S. heads out like sorghum but grains are large and round, often harvested for hay instead of grain.
46 Other grain crops:Oats- decline in production due to the declined use of draft animals; however human consumption has kept the U.S. oat production at the top of the leader board. The unground oat grain is called groat, the groat is roasted separated from the shell and rolled
47 Other grain crops:Quinoa- grown heavily in south America, cold tolerant, grows in dry climates, similar to rice, higher oil yield than corn, grows well at altitudes of around 8,000 ft.
48 Other grain crops:Rye- growth much like wheat, very hearty grain, not used much anymore for anything other than a green manure or cover crop, some planted for hay or pasture
49 Other grain crops:Teff- widely used grain in foreign countries, used for human food or animal feed, has few pest problems but is slow growing
50 Other grain crops:Triticale- crossbreed of rye and wheat, higher protein than both its parents, high productivity and climatic adaptation, grows in cold climates and is resistant to many diseasesWheat Rye Triticale
51 Other grain crops:Wild rice- grains are larger than traditional rice, shatters easily, has many pests and diseases, sells for higher price than domesticated rice
52 Summary:Grain is a major source of human and animal nutrition, and raw material for product manufacturing.The major grains grown in the U.S. are: Corn, Wheat, and Rice.Corn is the most important.
53 Summary:Selecting grain crops for production involves decisions based on: climate, soil and water, market, technology, and skills and preferences.The land must be compatible with the crop and there is no need to grow a particular crop if there is no market.No Market =
54 Summary:Varieties of crops were established to add value and adaptability to crops, corn is grown primarily for grain while some is produced for animal forage.Corn is grown most widely in the U.S.Winter wheat is planted in the fall and is used for spring pasture.Spring wheat is planted in the spring and harvested in late summer.Rice is grown in flooded fields. Rice is a staple in many foreign countries.Rice growing techniques vary depending on water management.
55 Summary:There are many minor grain crops, though many of them are not grown heavily in the U.S. many of them provide foreign countries with a large part of their nutritional needs.The most important minor crops are: grain sorghum, barley, and rye. Other crops are triticale, quinoa, and wild rice.