2Wheat has ears?Wheat berries grow at the top of the wheat plant. The grains are tightly packed together in clusters and called ears.Each ear of wheat is made up of grains. The grains have to be separated from the ears and stalks before they can be turned into flour. Wheat berries are intact grains of wheat.
3Parts of a grainBran: “outer shell” that protects the seed. Contains vitamins, minerals, protein and fiberEndosperm: inner, contains carbohydratesGerm: food for the seed. Contains vitamins B & E, fat and protein
4Whole Grains vs. Refined Whole Grains: Use the “whole” seed to make your grain productsExamples:Whole wheat flourBrown RiceWhole wheat pastaRefined Grains: use only the endosperm “starchy part”Examples:White breadWhite riceRegular pasta
7BarleyOne of the oldest grains and still a staple of Middle Eastern diets.Humans made bread from barley long before they used wheat.Most barley sold for food is “pearled” barley used in soups. Barley is “pearled” by polishing off the out layers of bran.
9BuckwheatThe fruit of a leafy plant belonging to the same family as sorrel and rhubarb.This nutritious food has a nutty flavor and is ideal for people allergic to the gluten in wheat.Used by Americans for pancakes, by Russians for blintzes, and Japanese and Koreans for soba noodles.Sometimes called groats or kasha.
13Oats Originally a weed in between rows of wheat or barley. 95% of the world’s oat crop is animal feed.Our “oatmeal” is made from rolled oats- oat groats that are steamed and flattened.Quick cooking oatmeal is made from groats that are cut into several pieces before steaming and are rolled into thinner flakes.
17Rice Half the world’s population eats rice three times a day. In Chinese, the words for rice and culture are the same.In Japanese the word for rice also means meal.Brown rice is the entire grain of rice with only the inedible outer husk removed.Brown rice is nutritious, high in fiber, and has a rich nutty flavor.
19Rye Rye was first seen as a weed Rye was the basic grain of Britains as well as countries of Northern and Eastern Europe.Rye contains little gluten so 100%rye flour will not make a loaf of bread. Most rye bread is at least 80% wheat flour. Bread can have as little as 2% rye and still be called rye bread.