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 1)Explain sugar and vegetable oil 2)Identify major sources of sugar 3)Describe the production of sugar crops 4)Describe the production of oil crops.

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Presentation on theme: " 1)Explain sugar and vegetable oil 2)Identify major sources of sugar 3)Describe the production of sugar crops 4)Describe the production of oil crops."— Presentation transcript:


2  1)Explain sugar and vegetable oil 2)Identify major sources of sugar 3)Describe the production of sugar crops 4)Describe the production of oil crops Objectives:

3   Sugars:  Sugar- any food product used as a sweetener  Plants (maple, corn) and animals (lactose or milk sugar) are sources of sugar Sugar and Oil

4   Type of fat obtained from certain plants Vegetable oils:

5   Plant sources are the most important  Over half the worlds’ sugar comes from sugar cane 2 forms:  Granulated- crystals of raw sugar or (confectioner’s) finely ground  Liquid-syrup Sugar Sources:

6   Crop 7-15 ft. tall  Harvested and sent to refinery  Crushed and squeezed  Blackstrap- the syrup produced during refining  Molasses- brown raw sugar that forms during refining when the blackstrap is removed Cane Sugar Mfg:

7   Made from large cone shaped root of the beet  Long tap-root makes the beet good for dry growing areas  Can be stored outdoors for long periods with no loss  Cossetes- the beet slices that are diffused during refining  Beet Pulp- the dried out cossetes that remain after refining often used for cattle feed  Where grown:- Minnesota leads production followed by Idaho, ND, Michigan and California Beet Sugar Mfg.:

8   Sugar cane production:  Warm tropical climates  Very efficient growth  Has nodes that can sprout new growth  Mature stalks can seed but plants grown for harvest never make it to this stage  Harvested in the fall  Sap- watery juice containing sugar that makes up most of the weight of sugar cane  Ratoon crop- sugar cane produced by sprouting (plants that grow from harvested stubble Sugar Crop Production:

9   Beets grown for seed are grown for 2 years  Sugar formation increases in late summer as the plants pull more nitrogen from the soil  The harvesting equipment is very unique this equipment cuts, lifts and loads the beets  Beets are hauled to processing facilities or piling stations Sugar Beet Production:

10   A variety of grain sorghum produced for its “sweet juice”  Can be planted following corn or soybeans  Harvested at mature stage with leaves and seed removed  Stalks are squeezed the juice is cooked and canned for use Sweet Sorghum:

11   Most plants contain small quantities of oil  Cooking oil- plant fat in which foods can be prepared  Mayonnaise, dressing, and shortening  Non-cooking oil- plant fat used in products such as:  Printing ink, soap, leather tanning, fuels Vegetable Oil Sources:

12   Ethanol- vegetable oil used as a fuel instead of gasoline or a blend of the two  Biodiesel- vegetable oil that has undergone esterification and blended with diesel fuel  Bi-products of vegetable oil production:  Chewing gum, plywood, crayons, plastics, animal feed, and fertilizer Vegetable Oil Sources:

13   Soybeans, canola, corn, cottonseed, peanuts, safflower, sesame, flaxseed, Tung seed, rapeseed, mustard, lesquerella, olive, and coconut, spearmint, and peppermint  Various uses on multiple scales (oil and bi-products)  Mfg. of vegetable oils:  Presses and solvents Oil Crops:

14   Types grown:  Soybeans  One of the U.S. leading crops  More grown in the U.S. than the rest of the world combined  60 million acres per year  25-60 BPA  Processed for oil and meal  Avg. 11 lbs. of oil, 43 lbs. of meal, 4.2 lbs. of hulls per bushel Oil Crop Production:

15   High quality seeds  Seedbed: land needs to be leveled be loose at the surface but tight below to hold water, terraces may also be necessary to slow water and avoid erosion  Seeding: soybeans are drilled to 1.5 – 2 in deep Planting:

16   Good bean yields require fertilizer being a legume nitrogen is not a problem as long as the seeds are inoculated at planting  Inoculating- mixing nitrogen fixing rhizobia bacteria with the seeds  Soil test should be taken to determine the need for soil amendments Fertilization:

17   IPM should be used to control pests  Common pests include: insects, weeds, and diseases  Can be somewhat controlled by planting resistant varieties  Cultural practices can be used to avoid certain pest Pest management:

18   Combining after plant matures about 14% moisture  Pre-harvest loss- loss that occurs before the combine hits the field (aka shatter)  Harvest loss- loss caused during the harvest (machinery adjustment) Harvesting:

19   Ranks 3 rd in worldwide oil crop production  Types grown:  4 types, runner (peanut butter), Virginia (roasting), Spanish (candy), valencia Peanut Production:

20   Varieties should be selected for climate adaptation and yield and must meet market requirements  Vary and should be chosen according to region that best supports their growth and production Varieties:

21   harvested when 75% or more of the pods show darkening  uses a digger-shaker-windrower Harvesting:

22   seeds are 45% oil  planted in the spring or fall  low levels of erucic acid that causes heart disease  ND and MN lead US production  Harvested when seeds brown must be harvested before shatter Canola Production:

23   Tall yellow flowers  Most go to oil production (smaller seed)  some for birdseed, some for human snacks (larger seed)  3 to 1o ft tall head can produce up to 1,000 seeds  Require less moisture than most crops due to extensive root system  Slower growth over season Sunflower Production:

24   Similar to sunflower  Used to make cooking oil, paint, and varnishes  Cool temp tolerant  Resemble thistles  30% to 40% oil  Harvested by combine  Shattering is not a problem Safflower Production:

25   Sugar crops are sources of food and sweeteners such as:  Sugar beets, cane, corn, and maple  Oil crops are used for:  vegetable oils for cooking, food sources, paint, and fuel  Oil crops are:  soybeans, peanuts, cotton seed, corn, canola, sunflowers, and safflowers Summary:

26   Cultural requirements vary:  Sugar cane likes tropical climate, high moisture  sugar beets like cooler climates with less moisture  Soybeans are the most important oil crop in the U.S  good rotational relationship with corn because it is a legume and can fix nitrogen Summary:

27   Peanuts and canola are also important oil crops  Sunflowers and safflowers are lesser grown oil crops in the U.S. but have a niche due to their ability to grow in cooler climates with less moisture Summary:

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