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Sugar & Oil Crops.

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Presentation on theme: "Sugar & Oil Crops."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sugar & Oil Crops

2 Objectives: Explain sugar and vegetable oil
Identify major sources of sugar Describe the production of sugar crops Describe the production of oil crops

3 Sugar and Oil Sugars: Sugar- any food product used as a sweetener
Plants (maple, corn) and animals (lactose or milk sugar) are sources of sugar

4 Vegetable oils: Type of fat obtained from certain plants

5 Sugar Sources: Plant sources are the most important
Over half the worlds’ sugar comes from sugar cane 2 forms: Granulated- crystals of raw sugar or (confectioner’s) finely ground Liquid-syrup

6 Cane Sugar Mfg: Crop 7-15 ft. tall Harvested and sent to refinery
Crushed and squeezed Blackstrap- the syrup produced during refining Molasses- brown raw sugar that forms during refining when the blackstrap is removed

7 Beet Sugar Mfg.: Made from large cone shaped root of the beet
Long tap-root makes the beet good for dry growing areas Can be stored outdoors for long periods with no loss Cossetes- the beet slices that are diffused during refining Beet Pulp- the dried out cossetes that remain after refining often used for cattle feed Where grown:- Minnesota leads production followed by Idaho, ND, Michigan and California

8 Sugar Crop Production:
Sugar cane production: Warm tropical climates Very efficient growth Has nodes that can sprout new growth Mature stalks can seed but plants grown for harvest never make it to this stage Harvested in the fall Sap- watery juice containing sugar that makes up most of the weight of sugar cane Ratoon crop- sugar cane produced by sprouting (plants that grow from harvested stubble

9 Sugar Beet Production:
Beets grown for seed are grown for 2 years Sugar formation increases in late summer as the plants pull more nitrogen from the soil The harvesting equipment is very unique this equipment cuts, lifts and loads the beets Beets are hauled to processing facilities or piling stations

10 Sweet Sorghum: A variety of grain sorghum produced for its “sweet juice” Can be planted following corn or soybeans Harvested at mature stage with leaves and seed removed Stalks are squeezed the juice is cooked and canned for use

11 Vegetable Oil Sources:
Most plants contain small quantities of oil Cooking oil- plant fat in which foods can be prepared Mayonnaise, dressing, and shortening  Non-cooking oil- plant fat used in products such as: Printing ink, soap, leather tanning, fuels

12 Vegetable Oil Sources:
Ethanol- vegetable oil used as a fuel instead of gasoline or a blend of the two Biodiesel- vegetable oil that has undergone esterification and blended with diesel fuel Bi-products of vegetable oil production: Chewing gum, plywood, crayons, plastics, animal feed, and fertilizer

13 Oil Crops: Soybeans, canola, corn, cottonseed, peanuts, safflower, sesame, flaxseed, Tung seed, rapeseed, mustard, lesquerella, olive, and coconut, spearmint, and peppermint Various uses on multiple scales (oil and bi-products) Mfg. of vegetable oils: Presses and solvents

14 Oil Crop Production: Types grown: Soybeans
One of the U.S. leading crops More grown in the U.S. than the rest of the world combined 60 million acres per year 25-60 BPA Processed for oil and meal Avg. 11 lbs. of oil, 43 lbs. of meal, 4.2 lbs. of hulls per bushel

15 Planting: High quality seeds
Seedbed: land needs to be leveled be loose at the surface but tight below to hold water, terraces may also be necessary to slow water and avoid erosion Seeding: soybeans are drilled to 1.5 – 2 in deep

16 Fertilization: Good bean yields require fertilizer being a legume nitrogen is not a problem as long as the seeds are inoculated at planting Inoculating- mixing nitrogen fixing rhizobia bacteria with the seeds Soil test should be taken to determine the need for soil amendments

17 Pest management: IPM should be used to control pests
Common pests include: insects, weeds, and diseases Can be somewhat controlled by planting resistant varieties Cultural practices can be used to avoid certain pest

18 Harvesting: Combining after plant matures about 14% moisture
Pre-harvest loss- loss that occurs before the combine hits the field (aka shatter) Harvest loss- loss caused during the harvest (machinery adjustment)

19 Peanut Production: Ranks 3rd in worldwide oil crop production
Types grown: 4 types, runner (peanut butter), Virginia (roasting), Spanish (candy), valencia

20 Varieties: Varieties should be selected for climate adaptation and yield and must meet market requirements Vary and should be chosen according to region that best supports their growth and production

21 Harvesting: harvested when 75% or more of the pods show darkening
uses a digger-shaker-windrower

22 Canola Production: seeds are 45% oil planted in the spring or fall
low levels of erucic acid that causes heart disease ND and MN lead US production Harvested when seeds brown must be harvested before shatter

23 Sunflower Production:
Tall yellow flowers Most go to oil production (smaller seed) some for birdseed, some for human snacks (larger seed) 3 to 1o ft tall head can produce up to 1,000 seeds Require less moisture than most crops due to extensive root system Slower growth over season

24 Safflower Production:
Similar to sunflower Used to make cooking oil, paint, and varnishes Cool temp tolerant Resemble thistles 30% to 40% oil Harvested by combine Shattering is not a problem

25 Summary: Sugar crops are sources of food and sweeteners such as:
Sugar beets, cane, corn, and maple Oil crops are used for: vegetable oils for cooking, food sources, paint, and fuel Oil crops are: soybeans, peanuts, cotton seed, corn, canola, sunflowers, and safflowers

26 Summary: Cultural requirements vary:
Sugar cane likes tropical climate, high moisture sugar beets like cooler climates with less moisture Soybeans are the most important oil crop in the U.S good rotational relationship with corn because it is a legume and can fix nitrogen

27 Summary: Peanuts and canola are also important oil crops
Sunflowers and safflowers are lesser grown oil crops in the U.S. but have a niche due to their ability to grow in cooler climates with less moisture

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