Presentation on theme: "Lesson 7 Identifying Specialty Crops and Their Value."— Presentation transcript:
Lesson 7 Identifying Specialty Crops and Their Value
Next Generation Science/Common Core Standards Addressed! CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.
Bell Work! 1. Describe amaranth and discuss its value as a specialty crop. 2. Describe barley and discuss its value as a specialty crop. 3. Describe millet and discuss its value as a specialty crop. 4. Describe red and green chili and discuss its value as a specialty crop.
Interest Approach Corn, soybeans, wheat, sorghum, oats, and alfalfa are the traditional agronomic crops grown in the United States. Can you think of other valuable crops grown today by producers? View these specialty crops: amaranth, barley, millet, quinoa, rice, rye, teff, triticale and chili. ( Red or Green) Have you seen these crops growing?
What is amaranth and what is its value as a specialty crop? I.Amaranth is a minor cereal grain crop. Like many forage grasses, amaranth is considered by some to be a weed. Amaranth is also considered an herb.
Amaranth is a broadleaf plant. Amaranth used for seed is called grain amaranth. Amaranth is high in protein, 12 to 18 percent, and high in lysine. Promoted as a dietary supplement. Amaranth was the principal grain crop of South America hundreds of years ago and is referred to as the “mystical grain of the Aztec.” There are over 60 species of the Amaranthus genus. What is amaranth and what is its value as a specialty crop?
B. Amaranth is planted in a prepared seedbed with a soil pH of 6.0 or slightly higher. Seeds can be planted with a drill or grain planter. What is amaranth and what is its value as a specialty crop?
Harvesting is done with a combine but is difficult because of the small seed size. Amaranth seed is dried to 12 percent moisture for storage. What is amaranth and what is its value as a specialty crop?
Barley is one of the oldest known grain crops. Barley is used as a grain and for forage. Some barley is used for making malt and livestock feed. It can be easily substituted for corn in livestock rations. What is barley and what is its value as a specialty crop?
B. Barley looks like wheat and has the same growth requirements. Barley is grown in cool climates and can be planted for winter or spring growth. What is barley and what is its value as a specialty crop?
III. Millet is a cereal grain used for grain and summer forage. Millet production has declined in the U.S. but continues to be an important food crop in some African countries. What is millet and what is its value as a specialty crop?
A.Proso millet is the only variety of millet grown for grain in the United States. It has stout, erect stems that grow about 4 feet tall. The grain heads are similar to those of grain sorghum. The ripened grains are ovate and rounded. Most Proso millet production is in the northern plains states. What is millet and what is its value as a specialty crop?
There are four forage millets commonly grown: pearl millet, brown top millet, foxtail millet, and Japanese millet. Pearl millet can grow up to 15 feet tall and has a grain head that looks like a cattail. Some species of foxtail millet are grown for birdseed. What is millet and what is its value as a specialty crop?
Millet used for hay is harvested while still in the growing stage. Millet used for grain is harvested after the heads have matured. To reduce shattering, millet is often mowed, raked, and combined. What is millet and what is its value as a specialty crop?
IV. Quinoa is a grain crop referred to as a pseudocereal because it is not a member of the grass family. What is quinoa and what is its value as a specialty crop?
It has been grown in South America for many years and has some potential as a grain crop in the United States. What is quinoa and what is its value as a specialty crop?
Quinoa is cold tolerant but its cultural requirements in the U.S. have not been studied extensively. However, it is known that it can be grown at altitudes comparable to those of the western United States. What is quinoa and what is its value as a specialty crop?
However, it is known that it can be grown at altitudes comparable to those of the western United States. Quinoa grain is similar to rice, has a high nutritional value, and produces higher oil yields than corn. What is quinoa and what is its value as a specialty crop?
Rice is a cereal grain grown on land flooded at times with shallow water. The U.S. is the largest exporter of rice! What are rice and wild rice and what are their values as specialty crops?
It is an important plant in Asia and Indonesia and is a source of food for half the world’s population. Almost all rice is grown in Asia with some being grown in Africa and the United States. What are rice and wild rice and what are their values as specialty crops?
Rice is grown on nearly 3,000,000 acres each year and the average yield per acre is 5,534 pounds. Rice is milled to remove the outer hull and polished into the white form we commonly see.
B. Grain length is the classification of rice by the length of the kernel. Short-grained rice is less than one-fifth of an inch long and is grown in milder climates. Medium-grained rice is one-fifth to one-fourth inch long and is also grown in milder climates. What are rice and wild rice and what are their values as specialty crops?
Long-grained rice is one-fourth to five-sixteenth of an inch long and is grown in tropical climates. It has more starch, which makes it more light and fluffy when cooked. What are rice and wild rice and what are their values as specialty crops?
C. Cultural method refers to how the rice is grown. Lowland rice is grown in large, flat fields that are flooded by irrigation and surrounded by dikes that direct the flow of water. D. Upland rice is grown in small fields on the sides of hills known as rice paddies. What are rice and wild rice and what are their values as specialty crops?
E. Rice varieties in the U.S. have been developed based on the length of the grain. Varieties are chosen to ensure efficient production. Rice is planted so that the grain is formed during late summer. In The US rice fields are also used to produce crayfish. Double cropping! What are rice and wild rice and what are their values as specialty crops?
Rice can be planted by drilling the seed into a dry seedbed, broadcasting onto a dry seedbed, or broadcasting into standing water. The dry seedbeds are flooded shortly after planting.
G. The time to plant rice depends more on the air temperature than the soil temperature. Shallow water warms quickly. Rice is planted in temperatures from 65° F to 70° F and from late March to early June depending on the area. H. Rice is seeded at 90 to 100 pounds per acre when drilling or 120 to 150 pounds per acrewhen water seeding. What are rice and wild rice and what are their values as specialty crops?
I.All rice seedbeds need to be level. When dry seeding, large clods are removed. In water seeding, clods are left or grooves are made to ensure seed placement. J. Water management is necessary in rice production and varies with the soil texture. What are rice and wild rice and what are their values as specialty crops?
Wells and pumps are used to maintain adequate water levels. Water is measured in acre-inches. An acre-inch is an acre of land covered with water that is 1 inch deep. Continuous flood is when the rice field is flooded throughout the growing season. What are rice and wild rice and what are their values as specialty crops?
Less water is needed when the field is continuously flooded. K. Soil testing should be performed on rice fields at least every three years. Nitrogen is the most important nutrient in rice production. Fertilizers should be added when the fields are dry. What are rice and wild rice and what are their values as specialty crops?
L. Rice has a number of pest problems including small aquatic animals. Crop rotations, chemicals, flooding the fields, and planting resistant varieties can help reduce the more common plant pest such as armyworms, grasshoppers, molds, and rots. M. Before rice can be harvested, the water is removed and the soil is allowed to dry. What are rice and wild rice and what are their values as specialty crops?
Some rice combines have oversize tires or tracks to prevent rutting in the field. Rice kernels are harvested at 18 to 22 percent moisture. N. Wild rice is a crop grown in the northern U.S. in shallow lakes and rivers. What are rice and wild rice and what are their values as specialty crops?
VI. Rye is a cereal grain crop used for grain, hay, pasture, or as a cover crop. The major uses are for livestock feed and to make flour for baking. What is rye and what is its value as a specialty crop?
Rye is similar to oats and barley but has lower yields. It is hardier than other small grains, can be planted in the fall or spring, and grows much like wheat. What is rye and what is its value as a specialty crop?
Rye is planted in prepared seedbeds with drills or broadcast. Nitrogen should be topdressed in early spring. Rye heads tend to shatter easily. What is rye and what is its value as a specialty crop?
VII. Triticale is a cereal crop used as forage and grain for livestock. It is a result of crossbreeding rye and wheat. Triticale has the high productivity of wheat, the climatic adaptations of rye, and has a higher protein content than either. The plants can grow from 18 to 41 inches tall. Triticale is grown in the Rio Grande and Pecos River Valleys here in New Mexico. What is triticale and what is its value as a specialty crop?
Triticale can be planted in the fall or spring, can grow in colder climates, and is resistant to many diseases. Its cultural practices are similar to those of wheat and rye. Studies are currently being done on additional uses for triticale.
Chili is New Mexico’s Contribution to the specialty crop world! Chili is consumed in both the fresh(green) and dried form (red). Chili is commonly used for human consumption, seasoning, dyes, topical analgesic for pain management and as a weapon in self defense sprays. Chili pods are actually berries. Flavor intensity will vary from the mild bell pepper to the Habanero. Chili is an excellent source of vitamins B and C. Hatch NM is known as the “Hatch NM is known as the Chili Capitol”.
Chili Production Facts More than 30 thousand acres of chili are planted in NM each year. There are actually hundreds of varieties of chili grown around the world. Rotate chili with other crops to prevent disease, a one in three rotation is suggested. Avoid soils with excess water holding capacity. Medium texture soils are the preferred medium. Fertilization rates vary depending on whether the crop will be harvested as a red or green crop. A green crop will be ready in 120 days, a red crop in 165 days. Excess fertilization leads to leafy plants that yield fewer pods.
What is Canola and its value as a specialty Crop? Canola is an edible oil that is the by product of processing rape seed. Canola oil has become a popular cooking oil as a healthy alternative to high fat products. Rapeseed is processed and used as a livestock feed. Rapeseed oil is utilized a source of bio-diesel.
North American Canola/Rapeseed Production. The climate of the northern great plains in the US and Canada are well suited for Canola/Rapeseed Production. Canada is a major producer of Rapeseed and Canola oil.
The End! Which grain crop is being planted in the photo?