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Avoiding Bankruptcy: The Credit Rating of High School Sciences Keith Sheppard.

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Presentation on theme: "Avoiding Bankruptcy: The Credit Rating of High School Sciences Keith Sheppard."— Presentation transcript:

1 Avoiding Bankruptcy: The Credit Rating of High School Sciences Keith Sheppard

2 The Academic Credit System - n “Educational Coin of the Realm”

3 The Academic Credit System - n “Educational Coin of the Realm” n Part of the “Grammar of Schooling”

4 The Academic Credit System - n “Educational Coin of the Realm” n Part of the “Grammar of Schooling” n Ubiquitous

5 The Academic Credit System-Uses n High School and College Graduation n Teacher certification n Faculty workloads and compensation n Departmental budgets n Transfer students n Etc.

6 The Academic Credit System n Where did it come from? n Who invented it ? n Why? n Can it be changed?

7 Before The Credit System - n All students followed the same courses n Classics dominated curriculum n Limited science offerings l “Chemistry, like virtue, must be its own reward” n Lecture/recitation/textbook dominated approach

8 Before The Credit System Admission Requirements ColumbiaHarvardPrincetonU MichiganYale Latin Greek Math English GeographyHistory & Geography GeographyHistory & Geography Geography

9 Enter Charles W. Eliot Enter Charles W. Eliot ( )

10 Charles W. Eliot n Studied chemistry at Harvard n Became tutor in chemistry at Harvard n Promoted individual lab work n Was passed over for Chemistry Professorship n Co-authored first laboratory manual in English while at MIT n Became President of Harvard in 1869

11 Charles W. Eliot n Introduced new subjects (science and modern languages) n Introduced the elective system n Educational accounting system needed

12 The Elective System n Absolute prescription n Group Elective system n Free elective system

13 The Committee of Ten Chaired by Eliot Hold a conference on each appropriate academic subject and make recommendations on a uniform education Three science conferences

14 The Committee of Ten Introduced science to curriculum Allocated time to each subject (The idea behind the credit system) All science for all

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17 Committee on College Entrance Requirements CCER (1899) n Proposes ‘national unit’. n Recommends only ONE science credit for college admission. l (4 in languages, 2 English, 2 Math, 1 History, 6 Elective).

18 Enter Carnegie (1905)

19 n Gives $10,000,000 to establish pension fund for college professors to be paid to institutions. n Set criteria for what was a college- l It had at least 6 professors l It had a course of at least 4 years of liberal arts l For admission not less than 4 years of high school

20 Enter Carnegie (1905) n Defined four years of high school to mean a minimum of 14 units or credits earned -- The Carnegie Unit

21 Enter Carnegie (1905) n Defined four years of high school to mean a minimum of 14 units or credits earned -- The Carnegie Unit A year’s work in any major subject = 120 sixty minute hours or its equivalent

22 Enter Carnegie (1905) n The Educational Coin of the Realm

23 Impact on Science Education n One year courses -fixed time n Fixed Order Biology-Chemistry-Physics n Limits innovation n Provides ability to transfer, easy scheduling


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