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Successful Scots What was the contribution of individual Scots to the countries they moved to?

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Presentation on theme: "Successful Scots What was the contribution of individual Scots to the countries they moved to?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Successful Scots What was the contribution of individual Scots to the countries they moved to?

2 Aim To assess the impact Scots made on their new countries. Success Criteria You Can: Describe two successful Scots emigrants. Explain why Scots made a huge impact on their new countries.

3 Scots migrants were successful wherever they went. They prospered as farmers, engineers, businessmen, ship owners, inventors and politicians. Opposite is John Alexander Macdonald who became Canada’s first Prime Minister in 1867.

4 Successful Scots Above James Ramsay MacDonald British Prime Minister Opposite John Logie Baird – Inventor of TV

5 Andrew Carnegie Video Clip Video Clip Video Clip Born in Dunfermline Carnegie made his name in America. His family emigrated to Pennsylvania in 1848 where he worked in a factory. He worked hard and saved enough money to invest in business. He made a fortune in the railway expansion of the 1860s and 1870s came to own his own steel company, Carnegie Steel, which, when he sold it, made him incredibly wealthy. Carnegie devoted the remainder of his life to large-scale philanthropy, with special emphasis on local libraries, education, music and scientific research. He gave $10 million to Scottish universities.

6 Andrew Fisher Fisher was born in East Ayrshire and worked in a coal mine from the age of 10. He and his brother emigrated to Australia where he again worked in the mines. He went on to be elected Prime Minister of Australia three times between 1908 and He also was High Commissioner to the UK between

7 Thomas Lipton Thomas Lipton grew up in the Gorbals in Glasgow. He left school at 10 and set up his first market stall in He set up a business exporting tea from India and China. His novel idea was packaging tea instead of selling it loose from a chest. He was knighted in 1898.

8 Why Were Scots Successful? Scots were well educated and had skills well suited to the needs of their new countries. Scotland produced skilled, practical workers who came from an agricultural or engineering background. Important skills were passed on through the apprentice system in Scotland. Scots were more literate i.e. could read and write. Scots spoke English unlike immigrants from other countries. Most emigrant Scots were Protestant which meant they did not face anti Catholic discrimination. Some Scots had money to invest.

9 Why Were Scots Successful? Scots were well educated and had skills well suited to the needs of their new countries. Scotland produced skilled, practical workers who came from an agricultural or engineering background. Important skills were passed on through the apprentice system in Scotland. Scots were more literate i.e. could read and write. Scots spoke English unlike immigrants from other countries. Most emigrant Scots were Protestant which meant they did not face anti Catholic discrimination. Some Scots had money to invest.

10 Returning Home About one third of Scots were unhappy abroad and came home. Some went abroad with the intention of returning to Scotland once they had made some money. They hoped to invest their wealth in Scottish or UK industries Some had jobs such as soldiers and missionaries which meant they would naturally return home.

11 The Scottish Experience Abroad – North America Aim: To examine the role of Scottish migrants in the development of North America Success Criteria: You can give examples of the part played by Scots in the development of agriculture, industry, transport and education.

12 North America North America was popular with Scots emigrants. ‘No country could match the USA and Canada for ease of access, familiarity, economic opportunity, family links and availability of cheap land.’ Tom Devine Clip One Clip Two

13 People from Orkney and the Highands were important to the development of the fur trade through the Hudson’s Bay Company.

14 Farming Scots were experienced farmers and were actively encouraged to settle in Canada by the Canadian Government. They worked to in the sheep farms of the USA and as ranch managers as far south as Texas and New Mexico

15 Californian Gold Rush 1849 Gold was found in California in 1848, as the news spread thousands of Americans and newly arrived immigrants made their way to California in the hope of striking it rich. Most left with less than they came with.

16 Industry Wages in the US were three times higher than Scotland. Many Scots emigrants found work in the developing US economy. Carnegie’s factories produced steel which was important for developing the transport infrastructure in the US (railways and bridges) and for building skyscrapers

17 Canadian Pacific Railway This railway linked the Canadian Atlantic coast with the Eastern Pacific coast of Canada it was crucial to the development and settlement of Western Canada. It is good evidence of the important contribution of Scots to Canadian development, it was given support by the Scottish Prime Minister of Canada, John A Macdonald. Financial support came from the bank of Montreal whose president was Scottish and the main surveyor and engineer on the project was also Scottish.

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19 Canadian Pacific Railway

20 The Scottish Experience Abroad – Australia and New Zealand Aim: To examine the role of Scottish migrants in the development of Australia and New Zealand Success Criteria: You can give examples of the part played by Scots in the development of agriculture, shipping, mining, banking and education.

21 Sheep Farming Many Scots emigrants became successful and wealthy sheep farmers. Others were employed as shepherds. Scottish companies bought large areas of land in Australia and used fellow Scots to manage the land.

22 Mining and Engineering Gold mines in New Zealand attracted many Scots from Shetland. James and Alexander Brown emigrated from Lanarkshire in By 1868 the owned a mining company that produced most of the coal in New South Wales. Robert Campbell was another Scot who developed many businesses in Australia including sheep farming, shipping and successful iron works in Melbourne. He was known as the ‘father of Australian business’ and many admired his success in business.

23 Shipping A number of Scots were important in the shipping industry in both countries as there were many opportunities to make your fortune. McIllwraith and McEacharn shipping was the first firm to successfully freeze Australian meat and send it to Britain by ship.

24 Education A good education system was need to produce literate and practical workers. The Presbyterian Church (‘the Kirk) played an important role in setting up and education system in Australia. Sydney and Adelaide Universities were also modelled on Scottish universities. In 1877 New Zealand copied Scotland and introduced free and compulsory education for all children between the ages of 5 and 13.

25 The Scottish Experience Abroad – India Aim: To examine the role of Scottish migrants in the development of India Success Criteria: You Can: Give examples of the part played by Scottish traders, governors and soldiers on India. Explain the role of Scots in helping to develop the education system.

26 British Involvement In India India between included modern-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. The East India company was the main British company that traded with India and had bases in Madras, Bombay and Calcutta.

27 British Involvement in India Rich parts of India were eventually controlled by the East India company. British rule was not popular as they tried to change traditional Indian customs. In 1857, Indian soldiers within the British army rose up or mutinied against British rule. The mutiny was crushed by the British army and the from 1858, the British started to rule India directly.

28 The Trade In Jute Many young Scots became traders with the East Indian company. One key product grown in India was raw jute – this was imported from Bengal to Scotland. The jute was then treated with whale oil to create a rough fibre from which sacking and sandbags could be made. Over 30,000 people in Dundee were employed in jute mills.

29 The Trade In Jute Eventually jute factories were established in India and the finance came from businessmen in Scotland. By 1914, Calcutta had 38 jute mills which employed 184,000 workers and 1000 of these workers were Scottish.

30 British Rule in India Britain ruled India through the East India Company. The most important company official was the Governor-General. James Andrew Broun-Ramsay, Marquis of Dalhousie was the Governor-General of India from He expanded British rule in India and introduced the ‘Doctrine of Lapse’ – if an Indian ruler of a state died without an heir the EIC could take over that state. Broun-Ramsay also encouraged India to industralise by building roads, bridges, canals and irrigation projects that helped agriculture to grow.

31 Education Some Scots who went to India did so as missionaries who wanted to spread Christianity. Many missionaries believed that if the population was educated they would be able to understand the bible. Many schools and universities were set up by missionaries such as the Reverend Alexander Duff who helped set up the University of Calcutta.

32 Were Scots Always Wanted Abroad? Aim: Consider the welcome which Scots emigrants received in the countries they went to Success Criteria: You Can: Describe the ways in which some Scottish settlers treated native people. Explain why native people were not always happy with Scots who arrived on their land.

33 A Warm Welcome? Native Americans in the USA and Aborigines in Australia felt that immigrants threatened their way of life. Fighting would break out between settlers and native peoples. Immigrants like the Scots had better weapons and were able to kill natives who resisted. Some Scots did to make agreements with native peoples and build good relationships.


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