Presentation on theme: "Emigration – What Attracted Scots To Emigrate Abroad?"— Presentation transcript:
Emigration – What Attracted Scots To Emigrate Abroad?
Help To Leave Aim: Examine the sources of help that were available to Scots who wanted to emigrate Success Criteria: You Can: Describe in detail, five sources of help for those who wanted to emigrate
Class Discussion – Why Was Emigration Costly? Emigrating to another country was a costly business. What would Scots emigrants need money for? Try to think of as many examples as possible.
Transport Cheaper and more efficient transport also encouraged emigration. Developments in steamships cut the journey time for a crossing between Scotland and North America from six weeks to one week by 1914. For emigrants this meant a speedier arrival and less time not earning money. The development of railways also meant travel to ports like Glasgow was easier.
Landowners Estate landowners helped with the cost of emigration because it suited them to do so. They wanted to reduce the number of people on their lands. They also wanted to get rid of workers whom they were planning to ‘clear’ off the land and others who were unable to pay their rents.
Government Help The government gave little help before the First World War. After 1918 they saw emigration as a way of dealing with the unemployment problems. The Overseas Settlement Committee tried to help ex-servicemen (soldiers) to emigrate. In 1922 the Empire Settlement Act was passed - £3 million was given per year to help with travel expenses, training and the buying of land. In 1937 this was cut to £1.5 million as countries like Canada and Australia were facing their own problems.
Charities Several charities raised money to send children to a new life in the colonies. Charities like Barnardo’s did a little work in Scotland. On of the best known examples is William Quarrier who set up orphanages in Scotland. In 1872 he began to send orphans to Canada and when the scheme ended in 1933 nearly 7,000 poor children had been sent to start new lives there.
Emigration Societies – Copy This Summary Note In 1851 an emigration society was set up in Skye. It became known as the Highlands and Islands Emigration Society. Supported by local officials and politicians, encouraging emigration was a way of dealing with the misery in the Highlands. Whole families were allowed to go together to countries like Canada and Australia. The money to fund this came from the government and the landowners.
Emigration Societies There were other societies in the West of Scotland in places like Lanarkshire and Renfrewshire. The societies tried to get government money to help families to emigrate. There were also female emigration societies such as the Aberdeen Ladies Union which sent women to Canada between 1883-1914. The government realised there needed to a balance of men and women in these countries for the population to grow.
Colonial Governments The leaders of the various colonies were keen to see their lands develop, their industries, trade and education improve and their people prosper. They wanted to attract emigrants who were skilled workers and who were educated. Colonies started to appoint agents to persuade people to emigrate and, perhaps provide help to pay for the journey. Offices were set up in Scotland, regular talks were given, agents toured markets, fairs, and village halls giving out leaflets about the benefits of emigraton.
Task Study the two Canadian posters on page 57 of your textbook. Each poster is trying to tempt Scots to emigrate. Make a list of the benefits of living in Canada – remember to look at the pictures as well as the information.
Other Factors Which Influenced Scots Aim: Examine the influence of religion, family and job opportunities on Scots emigrants. Success Criteria: Name three famous Scots missionaries and describe the work that they did. Give three examples of industries which Scots invested in and worked in.
Religion The British Empire contained many different peoples with different religious beliefs. In the 1800s there were several missionary societies in Scotland. They believed if was their Christian duty to convert people to Christianity. They raised money and sent missionaries to various parts of the world especially Africa. These missionaries had both a practical and spiritual role – using their skills to help the poor and sharing the Christian faith.
Alexander Duff was born in Perthshire and went to India. He set up Madras College and played a key role in creating opportunities for young men to be educated at college. Jane Waterson was from Inverness. She set up a girls’ school in South Africa. She then trained as a doctor and then went to Nyasaland (Malawi) to work as a missionary.
Mary Slessor Mary Slessor was originally from Aberdeen. She went to a part of Nigeria where people had never travelled before and lived among the natives learning their language. She challenged practices such as the ritual killing of children.
David Livingstone was born in Blantyre. He trained as a doctor and went to Africa as a missionary. He became more famous as an explorer who travelled 30,000 miles exploring central and Southern Africa. David Livingstone
In 1855 he discovered a spectacular waterfall which he called the ‘Victoria Falls’ in modern day Zimbabwe He was also determined to discover the source of the River Nile. When he returned to Britain for visits he also publicised the horrors of the Slave Trade.
Better Opportunities Abroad The big attraction of emigration for Scottish farmers was the possibility of independence – having their own land where they could make a living.Video ClipVideo Clip Canada, New Zealand and the USA offered fertile land at fair prices. Other Scots who were slightly better off took advantage of opportunities to invest in growing industries – sheep farming in Australia, mines, railways and steel in the USA. In the USA any Scots found work in industries such as textiles, steel, shipbuilding and mines. For many Scots there were simply better opportunities in other parts of the world.
A Community of Fellow Scots As more and more Scots emigrated abroad, communities of Scots grew up in their adopted countries. Places were named after towns and cities in Scotland. Emigrants continued to speak Gaelic, sing and play Scottish music and set up churches similar to the ones back in Scotland. Clip One Clip Two
Inverness Irvine Kelso Loch Lomond Oban Hamilton Gretna Creek Dundee Paisley Argyle Glencoe Inverness Perth Glasgow
A Community of Fellow Scots Scots who had already emigrated before the1830s, wrote letters home to encourage family members to leave. The fact that there was a support network of fellow Scots in existence abroad was an important reason why many emigrated. Countries like the USA and Canada were more classless where everyone had an equal chance of building a new life for themselves. All of this helped Scots to feel more at home in their new surroundings.