FOLLOW THE PATTERN Did you know that a writer has to follow a pattern when they write for a particular purpose? Patterns in writing are called “Text Structures”. It’s important to look for special words called “key words” that show different patterns or structures.
Text Structures are Patterns of Organization Definition and Example Structure Cause and Effect Structure Compare and Contrast Structure Time Order and Sequence Structure Problem and Solution Structure
Definition and Example Structure Look for these key words: –For example –In other words –Also –Related to –Is –Are –That is –Which is/ which are –Known as WORD EXAMPLES DEFINITION Signal Word or Signal Punctuation P
Definition and Example Structure Where People Live in Texas A metropolitan area is a city and the area around it, including all the suburbs and towns that rely on the city for jobs, shopping, and entertainment. Houston is the largest metropolitan area in Texas, with more than 4.1 million people. Dallas metropolitan area is almost as large, with more than 3.5 million people. Source: Littell, McDougal. Celebrating Texas. Teacher’s Edition, Evanston: Lone Star Publishing, 2003.
Definition and Example Structure Sharecropping A few farm families were able to pay their rent in cash. However, many families were too poor for that. Instead, they paid with a share of the crop. These tenant farmers were known as sharecroppers. Source: Littell, McDougal. Celebrating Texas. Teacher’s Edition, Evanston: Lone Star Publishing, 2003.
Definition and Example Structure Instead of using a KEY WORD, Definition/Example Structure may use PUNCTUATION. punctuation may include: –Comma, –Parentheses ( ) –Brackets [ ] –Dash – –Colon :
Definition and Example Structure Using Punctuation The Waltham factory was so successful that Lowell and his partners built a new factory town, Lowell, near the Merrimack and Concord Rivers. The Lowell mills, textile mills in the village, employed farm girls who lived in company-owned boardinghouses. During the late 1800s, the growth of large cities and other changes helped create an American mass culture - a common culture experienced by large numbers of people.
Cause and Effect Structure Look for key words, such as… –If…Then –Because –Causing, causes, caused –Is due to –Is caused by –Leads to –So –Consequently –Therefore –As a result –Thereby CauseEffect
rain and melting snow the worst floods in more than one hundred years in five states. EFFECTS CAUSE Cause and Effect Structure Flooding Changes Communities in the West During the month of January 1997, (CAUSE) rain and melting snow (EFFECT) caused the worst floods in more than one hundred years in five states. caused
Compare and Contrast Structure Look for these key words… –However –Unlike –Like –By contrast –Yet –In comparison to –Although –Whereas –Similar to –Different from –Both –While Venn Diagram
Compare and Contrast Structure Identify the differences and similarities in the passage below. Lewis and Clark On The Trail Of Discovery Lewis and Clark made a superbly balanced team. Both were young. Both were bachelors. Both possessed impressive command and field skills. Yet Clark was practical while Lewis was philosophical. Lewis was introverted, studious, and sometimes moody. Clark was outgoing, quick to take action, and mild tempered. However, both were dependable, courageous, disciplined, and loyal. Source: Gragg, Rod. Lewis and Clark On The Trail Of Discovery. Nashville: Rutledge Hill Press, 2003.
Time Order and Sequence Structure Look for these key words: –First –Second –Next –Before –Last –Then –End –After –Additionally –Finally, final –Another –Beginning 18601861June 1862July 1862 This shows a Timeline or Chronology This flowchart shows how events are sequenced.
Sequence Structure Think of sequence as a process that can happen at any time. Example: Making Pancakes
Sequence Structure Subject: How To Develop a Photograph First, place the exposed film in a light-proof container. Second, remove the developer and add fixer. Next, place the film in an enlarger to make a print. Then hang the negatives up to dry. Finally, the print is processed in the developer, rinsed and allowed to dry. Source: Morgan, Sally. Using Light. New York: Facts On File, 1993.
Problem and Solution Structure Look for these key words: Because of Since Due to Consequently So that Problem Solution Who What When Where Why How Attempted Solutions and Results End Results
Sequence Structure 1. a.___ First, we unload the dishwasher. b.___ It is time to do chores. c.___ Now, the house looks nicer. d.___ Third, we make our beds. e.___ Then, we put dirty clothes in the washer. 2. a.___ After our picnic, we will pick up our trash. b.___ When we find a good spot, we will have our picnic. c.___ Before we have a picnic, we will pack some food. 3. a.___ By the end of the day, it had started to rain. b.___ We went to the water park this afternoon. c.___ First, it was very hot and sunny. d.___ Later, clouds covered the sun, and it actually felt cool. e.___ The weather was strange.