How can you be sure you understand what a writer is trying to say?
Writers use transition words or transition phrases to connect sentences and ideas. We’re going to look at some of these transitions. One way is to look at how ideas, people, or events relate to each other.
Addition – the writer adds information. Furthermore, also, moreover, additionally, besides, next, too, in addition, as well Many people watch fireworks on the Fourth of July. Additionally, some people have picnics with their family and friends.
Contrast – presents different ideas about related subjects. On the other hand, in contrast, despite, however, except, Nevertheless, but Many people watch fireworks on the Fourth of July. On the other hand, some people prefer to stay home and have a quiet evening.
Repetition – restates original sentence To repeat, as was previously stated, to recapitulate Large dogs are much more relaxed than small dogs. Small dogs are excitable and find it hard to stay calm.
Examples - illustrates the previous sentence or the main idea. For example, for instance, in fact, specifically Even young children can do household chores. For instance, they can help set the table or help fold the laundry.
Comparison – shows how two ideas relate to each other As big as, as complicated as, as _____ as, similarly, compared to, in the same manner, the same as, likewise Playing chess is a complicated game of skill and strategy. Many people think that football is a game that requires similar skills.
Time and sequence – puts things in order Later, as soon as, then, during (the 20 th century, the past week) First, next, second, finally, before, after, subsequently During colonial times, the British taxed the American colonists without their consent. After the Revolutionary War, the former colonists paid taxes to their own government, not to the British.
Cause and effect – tells why something happened. Because, as a result, therefore, so, for this reason, on account of, accordingly, thus, consequently, so He stayed up late playing video games the night before his Accuplacer test. As a result, he did really badly on the test.
Tone – tells us about the writer’s feelings, judgments, and attitudes. Happy, angry, bitter, amused, sarcastic, ashamed, excited, sad, surprised, confused, upset, depressed, anxious, worried, concerned. Let’s look at some sentences. Each has the same topic but a different tone. I love working at Burger Barn. I meet interesting people, earn extra money, and get to eat all the chicken nuggets I want when I take a break. The tone is enthusiastic and positive.
I have no doubt that flipping burgers and making fries will prepare me for a top position on Wall Street. The tone is sarcastic and mocking.
I hate this job. The customers are rude, the managers are idiots, and the food stinks. The tone is bitter and angry.
Review of types of sentence relationships Addition – adds additional ideas Contrast - shows differences Repetition - restates central idea Examples – illustrates an idea Comparison – shows similarities Time and sequence – when? In what order? Cause and effect – why? What are the results? Paragraph organization Tone – shows the writer’s attitudes and feelings Compare and contrast – show similarities and differences
Review of transition words Addition - furthermore, also, moreover, additionally, besides, next, too, in addition, as well Contrast - on the other hand, in contrast, despite, however, except, nevertheless, but Repetition - to repeat, as was previously stated, to recapitulate, to restate Examples – for example, for instance, in fact, specifically Comparison – as big as, as complicated as, as _____ as, similarly, compared to, in the same manner, the same as, likewise Time and sequence – later, as soon as, then, during (the 20 th century, the past week), first, next, second, finally, before, after, subsequently Cause and effect – because, as a result, therefore, so, for this reason, on account of, accordingly, thus, consequently, so