2Today’s ClassDriving Question: How can a dental assistant identify instruments being used during a procedure?Learning Intentions: We will be able to state the names, features, and functions of various dental hand and rotary instruments.Anchor: During a dental visit what does the instrument set-up look like? Explain
3Introduction to Unit #1This unit the student is introduced to dental instruments, both hand and rotary. Dental hand instruments may all appear different, but they all have the same basic components, whereas the working ends are designed to meet the various functions. Hand instruments are identified by instrument number formulas. Rotary instruments, including handpieces, burs, and attachments, are designed for different purposes. Burs, like hand instruments, have a basic design and are identified by numbers. Because there are so many different instruments, dental offices must practice a method of instrument organization. Preset trays, cassettes, and tubs are all used to increase efficiency in instrument care, storage, and use.
4Introduction to Unit #1The upcoming lessons focus on the form and function of dental hand instruments. Hand instruments have three basic parts, the handle, shank, and working end. Each working end is different. To help identify the instruments, a three- or four-number formula created by G.V. Black is used. Hand instruments are also categorized by function, including examination, operative/restorative, and adjunctive. Every procedure tray setup begins with the “basic setup,” which includes the mouth mirror, explorer, and cotton pliers.
5Dental Instruments Include those used in the oral cavity: by manual hand implementationthrough use of mechanical devicesDA must know all instrument names and how they are utilized in order to effectively prepare for dental procedures
6Functions of Hand Instruments ExploreCutCarvePlaceCondense
7Basic Components of Dental Hand Instruments Courtesy Hu-Friedy
8Handle Designed to give stable grip and leverage Round, hexagonal, serrated, smooth, or paddedRing finger of operator’s hand acts as a fulcrumDentist signals dental assistant when an instrument is to be passedDA should grasp new instrument at non-working end between thumb and forefinger in a pen grasp close to treatment area and parallel to current instrument being used
9ShankTapered and may be straight, mono-angled (one angle), bi-angled (two angles), or triple-angled (three angles)Connects handle to working end of the instrumentAngle is designed so that a specific area in the mouth can be reached with that particular instrument
14Major Categories of Dental Instruments ExaminationOperative/restorativeAdjunctivesterile dental instruments are always organized on the tray in their sequence of use from left to right, or from closest to patient to farthest from patientfirst instrument closest to patient is always the mouth mirror, which is the primary instrument in every dental setup
15Dental Examination Instruments Designed to be used specifically for examining teeth and oral tissuesUsed to examine the tooth or other structures during initial oral diagnosis or after placing a restorationBasic examination setup:mouth mirrorexplorercotton pliersperiodontal probearticulating paper2 x 2 gauze squares
16Mouth MirrorMay be plane glass mirrors, magnifying mirrors, or front-surface mirrorsAvailable in metal, fiberglass, or disposable plasticMetal mouth mirrors are designed as cone and socket so mirror head can be replaced when necessaryMost common sizes are numbers 4 and 5Uses of mouth mirrorallow for indirect vision, reflect light into dark areas of mouth, retract soft tissues of tongue, cheek, and lips
17ExplorersSharp, pointed metallic instruments designed so various surfaces of the teeth may be conveniently reached with tipDouble-ended explorers may be combination of shapes with different style at each endVarieties include: shepherd’s hook, pigtail, and right angle
18Uses of Explorers What is the difference between supragingival Locating caries and enamel defects on tooth surfacesLocating supragingival and subgingival calculusLocating faulty margins on dental restorationsWhat is the difference between supragingivaland subgingival calculus?
19The Shepherd’s Hook, Pigtail Explorer, and Right-Angle Explorer Courtesy Hu-Friedy
20Cotton PliersTweezer-like metallic instruments available as locking or nonlockingWorking end consist of two tapered opposing portionsSupplied with serrated or smooth beaksCourtesy Hu-Friedy
21Uses of Cotton PliersHandling small cotton pellets, cotton rolls, small instrumentsHandling small items placed into or withdrawn from mouthCarrying medicationsTransporting items from drawers and containers in treatment room to avoid cross-contamination
22Periodontal Probes Determine depth and outline of soft tissue pockets Used with light pressure to probe root contours when exploring for calculus and root roughnessSingle-ended or double-endedSlender, tapered, flat or cylindricalIndentations or color markers spaced in millimetersExpro: periodontal probe on one end and #17-right angle explorer on other end
23Double-Ended Periodontal Probe and Single-Ended Periodontal Probe Courtesy Hu-Friedy