3Basic Classification of Dental Instruments Number of working endsFunctionsManufacturer’s numberBlack’s formulaBy knowing the classifications, it is easier to remember each instrument’s name and function.The two categories of working ends are single-ended and double-ended.If an instrument is classified by function, there is cutting and non-cutting. Also, there are instruments used for a specialty.On the handle of an instrument is the manufacturer’s number. Some instruments will have the name of the individual who designed the instrument.Black’s formula consists of the exact size and angulation of an instrument.
14Dental CheckName the cutting instrument that is used to plane and shape enamel and dentin walls.Chisel
15Noncutting Instruments Basic examination instrumentsMouth mirrorsExplorersCotton pliersPeriodontal probesCommon to all tray setups, these instruments are used to begin all procedures.There are three types of mirrors: Plane or regular surface mirrors, front surface mirrors, and concave surface mirrors. The most common size used is a 4 or 5.The explorers come in a variety of angles and different ends in order to access various areas of the mouth. It is used to detect irregularities. Common shapes include the pig tail, the shepherd’s hook, and the right angle.Cotton pliers are used to remove, transfer, and retrieve materials from the oral cavity and/or drawers and cupboards. Their handles are either locking or non-locking, and the tips may be straight or angled.The periodontal probes measure the depth of the gingival sulcus. An instrument called the expro is a combination of a periodontal probe and an explorer.Mirror and explorer Courtesy of Integra Life Sciences Corporation (through Integra Miltex)
18Noncutting Instruments Amalgam carrierCarry and dispense amalgamAmalgam condenserPack amalgam into cavity prepCourtesy of Integra Life Sciences Corporation (through Integra Miltex)Courtesy of Hu-Friedy Mfg., Co., Inc.
19Noncutting Instruments CarverRemove excess restorative materialCarve wax inlays and onlaysCourtesy of Hu-Friedy Mfg., Co. Inc.
22Noncutting Instruments MiscellaneousSpatulasArticulating forcepsScissorsCourtesy of Integra Life Sciences Corporation (through Integra Miltex)
23Care and MaintenanceExtend lifespan of instrument due to proper care and maintenanceProperly clean and sterilizeExamine all instruments thoroughlyAll instruments should be properly cleaned and disinfected as soon as possible after use. If they are not able to be cleaned right away, they should be pre-soaked in a solution to prevent the debris from drying on the instruments. Instruments should be cleaned in an ultrasonic bath or other similar solution. Hinged instruments should be cleaned in the open position and should be lubricated as appropriate. After cleaning for the appropriate amount of time, the instruments should be rinsed and dried. Once dried, they should be sterilized and stored. All instruments should be carefully inspected before use for properly functioning parts, broken parts, and sharpness.
24Dental CheckWhich type of burnisher is popular for smoothing amalgam or composite restorations?Acorn
27AbrasivesNonbladed instruments used to finish and polish restorations and appliancesCategorized by shape and materials from which they are madeE.g., rubber, stone, sandpaperThere are abrasives that are used for cutting. The shapes that categorize abrasives are as follows: discs, points, and wheels.
28Types and Functions of Abrasives MandrelsRods of various lengths used in low-speed handpiecesDiscsUsed to polish, smooth, and adjust restorative materials and dental appliancesMandrels are used with different abrasives, which are either mounted to the mandrel or unmounted. They come in three different shanks: latch, friction grip, or straight.The types of discs are as follows: sandpaper discs, diamond discs, and carborundum (also known as Jo-Dandy discs and separating discs). They are thin and brittle and break easily.
29Types and Functions of Abrasives StonesUsed for cutting, polishing, and finishing amalgam, gold, composite, and porcelain restorationsStones are used in the laboratory and are available in many sizes, shapes, and grits.
31Dental CheckWhat type of bur is used to open the cavity and remove the carious tooth structure?Round
32Dental Handpieces Used for the following: Remove dental decay Prepare tooth for restorationPolishPolish and finish dental restorationsCut, finish, and polish dental appliancesTrim models and traysThe electric handpieces are becoming more popular than the air-driven handpieces. The appeal of the electric handpiece is that it is quiet, vibration-free, efficient, and able to be sterilized.
33Parts of the Dental Handpiece Working endHeadShankConnection endThe working end is where the burs, discs, stones, and other rotary instruments and attachments are held. Forward and reverse controls may be located on the connection end.
35Maintenance and Sterilization of Dental Handpieces Follow manufacturer’s directions carefullySterilizationGeneral guidelines for maintenance and sterilization of a dental handpiece are as follows:- While handpiece is still attached to the tubing and a bur, flush for 20 to 30 seconds.- Remove debris by scrubbing the handpiece.- Lubricate using the manufacturer’s suggested lubrication.- Sterilize the handpiece.- Lubricate if instructed.
36Air Abrasion Unit and Microetcher Reduces use of anesthetics and drilling with dental handpiecesMicroetcherSmaller version of air abrasion unit used for intraoral sandblasting and dentin bondingBoth units require air pressure and an abrasive material. Abrasives used in the microetcher should be kept in a tightly sealed container to keep them dry and clean. It is important to consider safety for all involved while using a microetcher.
37Tray Systems Preset tray system Other systems Most commonly used Instruments and auxiliary itemsPlaced on tray in order of use during procedureOther systemsAn example of a preset tray system is the cassette system. This system allows instruments to be transported to treatment rooms, through the sterilization process, and into storage. It keeps the instruments for each procedure together at all times.
38Color Coding Systems Color coding may be set up to indicate: ProceduresTreatment room instruments storageAdditional sets of instrumentsIndividual operatorsSequence of useAny combination of the aboveColor coding makes it easy to identify instruments and trays. It is important that the material used for color coding is autoclavable and durable. Types of materials used for color coding include plastic rings and colored coding tape.