Presentation on theme: "Phylum Chordata Class Reptile DWI CANDRA PRATIWI, M.Sc FAKULTAS PERIKANAN DAN ILMU KELAUTAN UNIVERSITAS BRAWIJAYA 2014."— Presentation transcript:
Phylum Chordata Class Reptile DWI CANDRA PRATIWI, M.Sc FAKULTAS PERIKANAN DAN ILMU KELAUTAN UNIVERSITAS BRAWIJAYA 2014
Introduction Reptiles (Reptilia) are members of a class of air-breathing, ectothermic (cold- blooded) vertebrates which are characterized by skin covered in scales and/or scutes. They are tetrapods, either having four limbs or being descended from four-limbed ancestors
General characteristics Internal fertilization – increases chances of survival Cold blooded – ectothermic – Activity is regulated by the temperature of the environment – Restricted from cold water for this reason Well developed lungs If legs – 2 pair with claws (cakar/kuku) Scales (sisik) or plates
Four living order are typically recognized: 1.Crocodilia (crocodiles, gavials, caimans, and alligators): 23 species 2.Sphenodontia (tuataras from New Zealand): 2 species 3.Squamata (lizards, snakes, and worm lizards): approximately 9,150 species. 4.Testudines (turtles, terrapins and tortoises): over 300 specie
Amniotic egg – shelled – Shell – porous, prevents rapid water loss – Chorion – lines shell, gas exchange – Amnion – encloses embryo – Allantois – develops from embryo; carries on embryonic respiration and excretion – Yolk sac – contains food supply This class included the dinosaurs General characteristics
Tuatara (Sphenodon) – only living example Found in New Zealand Resembles large lizard Parietal eye – third eye covered by skin; senses sun’s radiation
Turtle – sea turtles – 230 species – Webbed feet – Soft-shelled (streamlines) – Omnivorous – eat both plants and animals
Sea Turtles Bodies are enclosed in a carapace – shell Cannot retract their head into the shell Forelimbs are modified into flippers (sirip) Only 7 species exist Lack teeth but have strong jaws for biting Females come up onto the beach at night to lay eggs in the sand Babies hatch and return to the sea Turtles are thought to return to same beach they were born on to lay their own eggs
Di dunia saat ini hanya ada tujuh jenis penyu yang masih bertahan, yaitu : Penyu hijauPenyu hijau (Chelonia mydas) Penyu sisikPenyu sisik (Eretmochelys imbricata) Penyu Kemp’s ridleyPenyu Kemp’s ridley (Lepidochelys kempi) Penyu lekangPenyu lekang (Lepidochelys olivacea) Penyu belimbingPenyu belimbing (Dermochelys coriacea) Penyu pipihPenyu pipih (Natator depressus) Penyu tempayanPenyu tempayan (Caretta caretta) Dari ketujuh jenis ini, hanya penyu Kemp's ridley yang tidak pernah tercatat ditemukan di perairan Indonesia.
Class: Reptilia: Reptiles Order: Chelonia: Turtles and Tortoises Family: Chelonidae: Marine Turtles Scientific Name: Natator depressus (Penyu pipih) Diet: sea cucumbers, soft corals, jellyfish. Size: < 1 m in length Conservation Status: vunerable Habitat: near continental shelf, shallow, soft bottom sea beds Range: northern part of Australia
Flatback turtles are usually found in bays, shallow, grassy waters, coral reefs, estuaries and lagoons on the northern coast of Australia and off the coast of Papua New Guinea. The species may feed off Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, but it nests only in Australia
Class: Reptilia: Reptiles Order: Chelonia: Turtles and Tortoises Family: Chelonidae: Marine Turtles Scientific Name: Chelonia mydas Diet: seagrass and algae Size: ~500lbs Conservation Status: threatened Habitat: high energy ocean beaches, pelagic habitat, benthic feeding grounds in relatively protected waters Range: throughout world in all tropical and subtropical oceans Green turtle
C. mydas distribution. Red circles are known major nesting sites. Yellow circles represent minor nesting locations.
Another model of the possible distribution of E. imbricata. Red circles represent known major nesting sites. Yellow circles are minor nesting sites.
Class: Reptilia: Reptiles Order: Chelonia: Turtles and Tortoises Family: Chelonidae: Marine Turtles Scientific Name: Caretta caretta (Penyu tempayan) Diet: Crustaceans Size: 76 - 102 cm (30 - 40 in) Conservation Status :Vulnerable Habitat: coasts, open sea Range: Temperate and tropical areas of the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans Loggerhead
Their shell is a reddish brown color, and their skin ranges from yellow to brown. The name loggerhead comes from their disproportionately large head. The loggerhead sea turtle holds the title of the world's largest hard-shelled turtle
Physiology: Poikilothermic (cold blooded) Skin has scales Speed- 35 mph Breath holding- 2 hrs, when sleeping or resting Maturity- 10-50 yrs for green Cannot retract heads like terrestrial turtles Lacrimal gland- salt secretion (drinks seawater)
Has both internal and external skeleton- provided protection and support for organs Fused ribs (tulang rusuk menyatu) Powerful sense of smell- find natal beach No ears, but can perceive low frequency sound and vibrations Male & female- difference in tail size; males tail extends past rear flippers, females is shorter
Mating- at sea Migration- occurs in late spring; female is accompanied by male Green sea turtles migrate as far as 800 miles from feeding area to nest in Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Egg laying behavior- return to same beach (natal beach)
Kemps Ridley nesting Usually nest at night Front flippers dig pit, rear flippers carve out burrow
Turtle nest Cross section Egg tooth- used to chip away at shell Group effort to get out of nest- emerge at night (safer) and head towards brightest light Artificial lights- confuse hatchlings
Clutch size- about 100 eggs & covers pit with sand Egg incubation- 2 months depending upon species Sex determined by temperature- males lower temp, females higher temp Leatherback hatching Kemps Ridley hatchlings
Conservation Status 1.Endangered- facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild 2.Vulnerable - facing a high risk of extinction in the wild 3.Threatened- close to qualifying in one of the above categories 1.International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), also called the World Conservation Union 2.The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) 3.The United States Fish and Wildlife Service.
A.Hunters B.Fisheries C.Marine Debris D.Coastal Development and Habitat Degradation E.Fibropapilloma
Increase sea turtle populations: Ranching- eggs or hatchlings from wild populations Farming- originally from wild populations, for breeding stock Law enforcement- in Hawaii, turtles protected under Endangered Species Act Riding or harassing- $100,000 fine + prison time Bringing turtle products into Hawaii- $20,000 + prison time Fishing regulations- Shrimp Trawlers - incidental catch by commercial shrimp fish nets: drowned 10,000 turtles each year Drift nets, gill nets Turtle Excluder Device (TED)
Marine Debris- plastic bags, soda can plastic rings, fishing line, oil and tar Costal development and habitat degradation- noise, light, beach obstructions- affect nesting habitat
Fibropapilloma- virus in Green turtles Affects ability to feed, see, move about, or breath May be due to pollutants, blood parasites, or habitat change Kaneohe Bay (1991)- >50% infected
Marine Iguanas Marine lizard endemic to Galapagos islands Herbivorous: graze on seaweeds Salt-glands on nose to eliminate excess salt Recently observed feeding on land for first time They return to land to escape predators.
Found mostly in the tropical waters of the Indian and Pacific oceans Bodies are laterally flattened and tail is adapted into a paddle Range in size between 3 and 4 feet They are ovoviviparous which means eggs are internally fertilized and baby hatches inside the mother All are carnivorous Very poisonous
Adaptations to life in the sea 1.Osmoregulation: skin is impermeable to salts; salts eliminated by sublingual gland 2.Developing a flattened paddle-shaped tail and a laterally compressed body. 3.Reduced metabolic rate and increased tolerance for low oxygen levels 4.Lungs- greatly enlarged 5.Gaseous exchange - lungs and the skin. Sea Snakes
Reproduction: Not much known about breeding However, olive sea snake breed in spring; seasonal courtship displays Olive Sea Snake Sea Snakes