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Marine turtle Marine iguana Saltwater crocodile Marine Reptiles Sea snake.

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Presentation on theme: "Marine turtle Marine iguana Saltwater crocodile Marine Reptiles Sea snake."— Presentation transcript:

1 Marine turtle Marine iguana Saltwater crocodile Marine Reptiles Sea snake

2 Sea Snakes Yellow- bellied sea snake

3 Diversity: Laticodtidae- krates- 5 species (1 is fw in Solomon Islands) Hydrophidae- 54 different species All derived from Colubrid ancestor; colubrids evolved 40 mya; Laticotids evolved from colubrids 30 mya Location: Laticotids- live from east coast India to Japan and come to the tip of Cape York (Australia) Hydrophiids- found from south tip of Africa to India to South East Asian Islands to Japan to north half of Australia Habitat: Primarily tropical; coastal estuaries, coral reefs, open sea; o C Sea Snakes

4 Behavior: Often schooling in aggregations; Not aggressive but human fatalities have occurred Prey: Feed on small fish or squid, which are killed with powerful venom Predators (few): sharks, snapper, grouper, crabs, saltwater crocodiles, raptors; they descend to escape Venom: 2-10 times as toxic as that of a cobras Sea Snakes

5 Adaptations to life in the sea 1.Osmoregulation: skin is impermeable to salts; salts eliminated by sublingual gland 2.Developing a flattened paddle-shaped tail and a laterally compressed body. 3.Reduced metabolic rate and increased tolerance for low oxygen levels 4.Lungs- greatly enlarged; hydrostatic organ 5.Gaseous exchange - lungs and the skin. Sea Snakes

6 Reproduction: Krates are oviparous and lay eggs on land Hydrophiids are viviparous and produce young in the water Not much known about breeding However, olive sea snake breed in spring; seasonal courtship displays Olive Sea Snake Sea Snakes Banded sea krates forming mating group

7 Largest living crocodilians: 6-7 m long Eggs laid and incubated on land Tropical and subtropical Saltwater crocodiles

8 Marine Iguanas Marine lizard endemic to Galapagos islands Herbivorous: graze on seaweeds Salt-glands on nose to eliminate excess salt Recently observed feeding on land for first time They return to land to escape predators.

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10 Found in fossil record 200 mya (Triassic) Common in Cretaceous (130 mya) Present day genera originated 60 (Eocene) and 10 mya (Pleistocene) Not a very diverse group Mostly tropical and subtropical

11 Order Chelonia- warm to temperate and boreal seas ex. leatherback, ridley's, kemps Order Chelonia- F. Cheloniidae- green, flatback, hawksbill, loggerhead F. Dermochelidae- leatherback reduced shell, dermal bone scutes compose shell F. Emydidae- diamond back terrapin Class Reptilia Hawaii species- green, hawksbill, leatherback, Olive Ridley

12 Conservation Status 1.Endangered- facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild 2.Vulnerable - facing a high risk of extinction in the wild 3.Threatened- close to qualifying in one of the above categories 1.International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), also called the World Conservation Union 2.The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) 3.The United States Fish and Wildlife Service.

13 Class: Reptilia: Reptiles Order: Chelonia: Turtles and Tortoises Family: Chelonidae: Marine Turtles Scientific Name: Natator depressus Diet: sea cucumbers, soft corals, jellyfish Size: < 1 m in length Conservation Status: vunerable Habitat: near continental shelf, shallow, soft bottom sea beds Range: northern part of Australia flatback

14 Class: Reptilia: Reptiles Order: Chelonia: Turtles and Tortoises Family: Chelonidae: Marine Turtles Scientific Name: Chelonia mydas Diet: seagrass and algae Size: ~500lbs Conservation Status: threatened Habitat: high energy ocean beaches, convergence zones in the pelagic habitat, benthic feeding grounds in relatively protected waters Range: throughout world in all tropical and subtropical oceans Green turtle

15 hawksbill Class: Reptilia: Reptiles Order: Chelonia: Turtles and Tortoises Family: Chelonidae: Marine Turtles Scientific Name: Eretmochelys imbricata Diet: Shellfish Size: cm ( in) Conservation Status: Endangered Habitat: coral reefs, rocky coasts Range: Tropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans; Caribbean

16 Class: Reptilia: Reptiles Order: Chelonia: Turtles and Tortoises Family: Chelonidae: Marine Turtles Scientific Name: Caretta caretta Diet: Crustaceans Size: cm ( in) Conservation Status:Vulnerable Habitat: coasts, open sea Range: Temperate and tropical areas of the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans Loggerhead

17 leatherback Class: Reptilia: Reptiles Order: Chelonia: Turtles and Tortoises Family: Dermochelidae: Marine Turtles Scientific Name: Dermochelys coriacea Diet: sea jellies and salps Size: 1500 lbs Conservation Status: endangered Habitat: pelagic water Range: tropical seas, oceanic islands, Atlantic, Pacific, & Indian Ocean

18 reduced shell, dermal bone scutes compose shell 7 dorsal and 5 ventral dermal bones

19 Physiology: Poikilothermic (cold blooded) Skin has scales Speed- 35 mph Breath holding- 2 hrs, when sleeping or resting Maturity yrs for green Cannot retract heads like terrestrial turtles Lacrimal gland- salt secretion (drinks seawater)

20 Anatomy Has both internal and external skeleton- provided protection and support for organs Fused ribs Powerful sense of smell- find natal beach No ears, but can perceive low frequency sound and vibrations Male & female- difference in tail size; males tail extends past rear flippers, females is shorter

21 Mating- at sea Migration- occurs in late spring; female is accompanied by male Green sea turtles migrate as far as 800 miles from feeding area to nest in Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Egg laying behavior- return to same beach (natal beach)

22 Kemps Ridley nesting Usually nest at night Front flippers dig pit, rear flippers carve out burrow

23 Turtle nest Cross section Egg tooth- used to chip away at shell Group effort to get out of nest- emerge at night (safer) and head towards brightest light Artificial lights- confuse hatchlings

24 Clutch size- about 100 eggs & covers pit with sand Egg incubation- 2 months depending upon species Sex determined by temperature- males lower temp, females higher temp Leatherback hatching Kemps Ridley hatchlings

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26 Sea grass and Algae- adult green sea turtle Epiphytes on sea grass, Sponges, fish, crabs, conch- loggerheads (suction feeders) Gelatinous zooplankton: siphonophores jellyfish Crustaceans, mollusks, echinoderms- Ridley

27 Eggs- skunks, raccoons, pigs, lizards, crabs, ants, beetles, fungal and bacterial infections Hatchlings- birds, mammals, crabs Adults- sharks, humans

28 Hawaii nesting females French Frigate Shoals in the Northwest Hawaiian chain A.Hunters B.Fisheries C.Marine Debris D.Coastal Development and Habitat Degradation E.Fibropapilloma

29 Meat Eggs- nearly forbidden in all countries with nesting beaches Soup Jewelry Leather Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES): turtle commerce prohibited in countries that signed agreement

30 Increase sea turtle populations: Ranching- eggs or hatchlings from wild populations Farming- originally from wild populations, for breeding stock Law enforcement- in Hawaii, turtles protected under Endangered Species Act Riding or harassing- $100,000 fine + prison time Bringing turtle products into Hawaii- $20,000 + prison time Fishing regulations- Shrimp Trawlers - incidental catch by commercial shrimp fish nets: drowned 10,000 turtles each year Drift nets, gill nets Turtle Excluder Device (TED)

31 Catch Statistics (1987) FAO yearbook on Fishery Statistics 3100 metric tons Western Central Atlantic-1200 Eastern Central Pacific- 864 South East Pacific- 305 Western Central Pacific- 258 North West Pacific- 190 Eastern Central Atlantic- 153 Eastern Indian Ocean- 50 Western Indian Ocean- 37 Mediterranean - 20 South East Atlantic- 10

32 Marine Debris- plastic bags, soda can plastic rings, fishing line, oil and tar Costal development and habitat degradation- noise, light, beach obstructions- affect nesting habitat

33 Fibropapilloma- virus in Green turtles Affects ability to feed, see, move about, or breath May be due to pollutants, blood parasites, or habitat change Kaneohe Bay (1991)- >50% infected

34 Turtle Excluder Device


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