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Marine turtle Marine Reptiles Marine iguana Sea snake Saltwater crocodile Some reinvaded the oceans, but still breathe air: Turtles (Order Chelonia) Snakes.

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Presentation on theme: "Marine turtle Marine Reptiles Marine iguana Sea snake Saltwater crocodile Some reinvaded the oceans, but still breathe air: Turtles (Order Chelonia) Snakes."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Marine turtle Marine Reptiles Marine iguana Sea snake Saltwater crocodile Some reinvaded the oceans, but still breathe air: Turtles (Order Chelonia) Snakes (Order Squamata) Iguanas (Order Squamata) Crocodiles (Order Crocodilia)

3 Marine Reptiles Ectotherms (“cold-blooded”), so mostly in warmer waters, seasonal in temperate waters Cold stunning – Turtles too far north when water temperature suddenly drops (<50°F) Get lethargic, immobile, float to surface, wash up on beach Fatal if not warmed

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5 Found in fossil record 200 mya (Triassic) Common in Cretaceous (130 mya) Present day genera originated 60 (Eocene) and 10 mya (Pleistocene) Not a very diverse group Mostly tropical and subtropical

6 Order Chelonia- warm to temperate and boreal seas ex. leatherback, ridley's, kemps Order Chelonia- F. Cheloniidae- green, flatback, hawksbill, loggerhead F. Dermochelidae- leatherback reduced shell, dermal bone scutes compose shell F. Emydidae- diamond back terrapin Class Reptilia Hawaii species- green, hawksbill, leatherback, Olive Ridley

7 Anatomy Dorsal shell = carapace Ventral shell = plastron Head does not retract carapace plastron

8 Anatomy FemaleMale

9 Adaptation to salt water Lacrimal glands

10 Scientific Name: Chelonia mydas Diet: seagrass and algae Size: ~500lbs Conservation Status: threatened Habitat: high energy ocean beaches, convergence zones in the pelagic habitat, benthic feeding grounds in relatively protected waters Range: throughout world in all tropical and subtropical oceans Green turtle

11 Kemp’s Ridley Scientific Name: Lepidochelys kempii Diet: mollusks, crustaceans, jellyfish, fish, algae or seaweed, and sea urchins. Size: 100lbs Conservation Status: highly endangered Habitat: shallow water benthic feeder Range: Gulf of Mexico, Texas

12 Olive Ridley NOAA Scientific Name: Lepidochelys olivacea Diet: jellyfish, tunicates, sea urchins, bryozoans, bivalves, snails, shrimp, crabs, rock lobsters, and sipunculid worms Size: >100lbs Conservation Status: highly endangered Habitat: shallow marine waters Range: Indo-Pacific, S. Atlantic

13 Hawksbill Scientific Name: Eretmochelys imbricata Diet: Shellfish Size: cm ( in) Conservation Status: Endangered Habitat: coral reefs, rocky coasts Range: Tropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans; Caribbean

14 Loggerhead NOAA Scientific Name: Caretta caretta Diet: Crustaceans Size: cm ( in), 300 lbs Conservation Status: Vulnerable Habitat: coasts, open sea Range: Temperate and tropical areas of the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans

15 Flatback Scientific Name: Natator depressus Diet: sea cucumbers, soft corals, jellyfish Size: < 1 m in length, 200 lbs Conservation Status: vunerable Habitat: near continental shelf, shallow, soft bottom sea beds Range: northern part of Australia

16 Leatherback Family: Dermochelidae: Scientific Name: Dermochelys coriacea Diet: sea jellies and salps Size: 1500 lbs Conservation Status: endangered Habitat: pelagic water Range: tropical seas, oceanic islands, Atlantic, Pacific, & Indian Ocean

17 Mating- at sea Migration- occurs in late spring; female is accompanied by male Green sea turtles migrate as far as 800 miles from feeding area to nest in Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Egg laying behavior- return to same beach (natal beach)

18 Kemps Ridley nesting Usually nest at night Front flippers dig pit, rear flippers carve out burrow

19 Turtle nest Cross section Egg tooth- used to chip away at shell Group effort to get out of nest- emerge at night (safer) and head towards brightest light Artificial lights- confuse hatchlings

20 Incidental Marine Turtle Catches

21 Marine Debris- plastic bags, soda can plastic rings, fishing line, oil and tar Costal development and habitat degradation- noise, light, beach obstructions- affect nesting habitat

22 Fibropapilloma - virus in Green turtles Affects ability to feed, see, move about, or breath May be due to pollutants, blood parasites, or habitat change Kaneohe Bay (1991)- >50% infected

23 Clutch size- about 100 eggs & covers pit with sand Egg incubation- 2 months depending upon species Sex determined by temperature- males lower temp, females higher temp Leatherback hatching Kemps Ridley hatchlings

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25 Hawaii nesting females French Frigate Shoals in the Northwest Hawaiian chain A.Hunters B.Fisheries C.Marine Debris D.Coastal Development and Habitat Degradation E.Fibropapilloma

26 Meat Eggs- nearly forbidden in all countries with nesting beaches Soup Jewelry Leather Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES): turtle commerce prohibited in countries that signed agreement

27 Law enforcement- in Hawaii, turtles protected under Endangered Species Act Riding or harassing- $100,000 fine + prison time Bringing turtle products into Hawaii- $20,000 + prison time

28 Increase sea turtle populations: Ranching- eggs or hatchlings from wild populations Farming- originally from wild populations, for breeding stock

29 Fishing regulations- Shrimp Trawlers - incidental catch by commercial shrimp fish nets: drowned 10,000 turtles each year Drift nets, gill nets Turtle Excluder Device (TED)

30 Turtle Excluder Device

31 Inquiry 1.What is a natal beach? 2.What advantage is there in turtle hatchlings leaving in a group rather than individually? 3.Are the consequences for harassing a turtle adequate? 4.How does the fibropapilloma virus effect green sea turtles? 5.What is a TED? How do marine turtles regulate salt in their body?


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