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Marine turtle Marine Reptiles Marine iguana Sea snake Saltwater crocodile Some reinvaded the oceans, but still breathe air: Turtles (Order Chelonia) Snakes.

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Presentation on theme: "Marine turtle Marine Reptiles Marine iguana Sea snake Saltwater crocodile Some reinvaded the oceans, but still breathe air: Turtles (Order Chelonia) Snakes."— Presentation transcript:


2 Marine turtle Marine Reptiles Marine iguana Sea snake Saltwater crocodile Some reinvaded the oceans, but still breathe air: Turtles (Order Chelonia) Snakes (Order Squamata) Iguanas (Order Squamata) Crocodiles (Order Crocodilia)

3 Marine Reptiles Ectotherms (“cold-blooded”), so mostly in warmer waters, seasonal in temperate waters Cold stunning – Turtles too far north when water temperature suddenly drops (<50°F) Get lethargic, immobile, float to surface, wash up on beach Fatal if not warmed


5 Found in fossil record 200 mya (Triassic) Common in Cretaceous (130 mya) Present day genera originated 60 (Eocene) and 10 mya (Pleistocene) Not a very diverse group Mostly tropical and subtropical

6 Order Chelonia- warm to temperate and boreal seas ex. leatherback, ridley's, kemps Order Chelonia- F. Cheloniidae- green, flatback, hawksbill, loggerhead F. Dermochelidae- leatherback reduced shell, dermal bone scutes compose shell F. Emydidae- diamond back terrapin Class Reptilia Hawaii species- green, hawksbill, leatherback, Olive Ridley

7 Anatomy Dorsal shell = carapace Ventral shell = plastron Head does not retract carapace plastron

8 Anatomy FemaleMale

9 Adaptation to salt water Lacrimal glands

10 Scientific Name: Chelonia mydas Diet: seagrass and algae Size: ~500lbs Conservation Status: threatened Habitat: high energy ocean beaches, convergence zones in the pelagic habitat, benthic feeding grounds in relatively protected waters Range: throughout world in all tropical and subtropical oceans Green turtle

11 Kemp’s Ridley Scientific Name: Lepidochelys kempii Diet: mollusks, crustaceans, jellyfish, fish, algae or seaweed, and sea urchins. Size: 100lbs Conservation Status: highly endangered Habitat: shallow water benthic feeder Range: Gulf of Mexico, Texas

12 Olive Ridley NOAA Scientific Name: Lepidochelys olivacea Diet: jellyfish, tunicates, sea urchins, bryozoans, bivalves, snails, shrimp, crabs, rock lobsters, and sipunculid worms Size: >100lbs Conservation Status: highly endangered Habitat: shallow marine waters Range: Indo-Pacific, S. Atlantic

13 Hawksbill Scientific Name: Eretmochelys imbricata Diet: Shellfish Size: cm ( in) Conservation Status: Endangered Habitat: coral reefs, rocky coasts Range: Tropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans; Caribbean

14 Loggerhead NOAA Scientific Name: Caretta caretta Diet: Crustaceans Size: cm ( in), 300 lbs Conservation Status: Vulnerable Habitat: coasts, open sea Range: Temperate and tropical areas of the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans

15 Flatback Scientific Name: Natator depressus Diet: sea cucumbers, soft corals, jellyfish Size: < 1 m in length, 200 lbs Conservation Status: vunerable Habitat: near continental shelf, shallow, soft bottom sea beds Range: northern part of Australia

16 Leatherback Family: Dermochelidae: Scientific Name: Dermochelys coriacea Diet: sea jellies and salps Size: 1500 lbs Conservation Status: endangered Habitat: pelagic water Range: tropical seas, oceanic islands, Atlantic, Pacific, & Indian Ocean

17 Mating- at sea Migration- occurs in late spring; female is accompanied by male Green sea turtles migrate as far as 800 miles from feeding area to nest in Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Egg laying behavior- return to same beach (natal beach)

18 Kemps Ridley nesting Usually nest at night Front flippers dig pit, rear flippers carve out burrow

19 Turtle nest Cross section Egg tooth- used to chip away at shell Group effort to get out of nest- emerge at night (safer) and head towards brightest light Artificial lights- confuse hatchlings

20 Incidental Marine Turtle Catches

21 Marine Debris- plastic bags, soda can plastic rings, fishing line, oil and tar Costal development and habitat degradation- noise, light, beach obstructions- affect nesting habitat

22 Fibropapilloma - virus in Green turtles Affects ability to feed, see, move about, or breath May be due to pollutants, blood parasites, or habitat change Kaneohe Bay (1991)- >50% infected

23 Clutch size- about 100 eggs & covers pit with sand Egg incubation- 2 months depending upon species Sex determined by temperature- males lower temp, females higher temp Leatherback hatching Kemps Ridley hatchlings


25 Hawaii nesting females French Frigate Shoals in the Northwest Hawaiian chain A.Hunters B.Fisheries C.Marine Debris D.Coastal Development and Habitat Degradation E.Fibropapilloma

26 Meat Eggs- nearly forbidden in all countries with nesting beaches Soup Jewelry Leather Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES): turtle commerce prohibited in countries that signed agreement

27 Law enforcement- in Hawaii, turtles protected under Endangered Species Act Riding or harassing- $100,000 fine + prison time Bringing turtle products into Hawaii- $20,000 + prison time

28 Increase sea turtle populations: Ranching- eggs or hatchlings from wild populations Farming- originally from wild populations, for breeding stock

29 Fishing regulations- Shrimp Trawlers - incidental catch by commercial shrimp fish nets: drowned 10,000 turtles each year Drift nets, gill nets Turtle Excluder Device (TED)

30 Turtle Excluder Device

31 Inquiry 1.What is a natal beach? 2.What advantage is there in turtle hatchlings leaving in a group rather than individually? 3.Are the consequences for harassing a turtle adequate? 4.How does the fibropapilloma virus effect green sea turtles? 5.What is a TED? How do marine turtles regulate salt in their body?

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