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Monocots, Dicots, Gymnosperms & Ferns Plant Classification & Basic Plant Groups for the Landscape.

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Presentation on theme: "Monocots, Dicots, Gymnosperms & Ferns Plant Classification & Basic Plant Groups for the Landscape."— Presentation transcript:

1 Monocots, Dicots, Gymnosperms & Ferns Plant Classification & Basic Plant Groups for the Landscape

2 Classification of Plants Taxonomic classification starts with the least specific – “it’s a plant” And ends with the most specific – “the individual plant by name” Kingdom Division Class Order Family Genus Species

3 Classification of Plants It all begins with the Plant Kingdom Kingdom Plantae Similarities They all photosynthesize

4 See Handouts: Classifications of Living Organisms Traditionally Regarded as Plants Plant Morphology: A Summary

5 Division Division (synonymous with phylum) Suffix –phyta Divided into three (3) groups

6 Division Seedless, nonvascular plants Bryophyta – the bryophytes Mosses & liverworts

7 Division Seedless vascular plants Sphenophyta – horsetails Pterophyta – ferns Both used in landscaping

8 Division Seed bearing vascular plants Cycadophyta – cycads Ginkgophyta – ginkgo or maidenhair Coniferophyta – conifer Gnetophyta – gnetophytes All fall into the group “Gymnosperms” – naked seed

9 Division Anthophyta – angiosperms Flowering plants Divided into two (2) classes Monocotyledons – monocots Dicotyledons - dicots

10 Order Groups of related families based on phylogenetic unity (fossil records, comparative anatomy, etc.) Suffix –ales Rosales

11 Family Grouped by similar genera Similarities in flowering Large families split into tribes Similar tribes split into sub-families Similarities in foliage are NOT reliable for identification Suffix –aceae Rosaceae

12 Genus Always italicized OR underlined Generic name form First part of Latin binomial naming system Comprises a group of obviously similar species

13 Genus Usually related by reproductive organs and methods Can be further broken down into sub- genera

14 species In most cases it’s lowercase, italicized OR underlined In some cases it may be capitalized and in ‘Single Quotes’

15 species Specific epithet Second part of the Latin binomial naming system Refers to an individual group

16 species Groups typically do not cross sexually Sexual crosses are usually sterile Sub-species are species separated by environmental factors

17 Varieties (var.) Usually in ‘single quotes’ Tends to be a variation in the species Typically naturally occurring Maybe only represented by something as simple as foliage color or growth habit

18 Cultivars (Cv.) Often Capitalized and in ‘Single Quotes’ Cultivated variety produced by horticultural techniques and breeding

19 Classification of Plants Genus x species x = hybrid cross between two different species Can be naturally occurring or man- made

20 Classification of Plants x Genus species x = hybrid cross between two different genera Can be naturally occurring or man- made

21 Horsetails Division Sphenophyta Equisetum is the only genus in the division Scouring rush About 35 species of Equisetum

22 Horsetails Fossil records Seedless vascular plants Spores not seeds Jointed, tubular stems Stems grooved

23 Horsetails Rhizomatous Invasive in the landscape

24 Ferns Division Pterophyta Primitive plant group Fossil records 12,000 species Seedless vascular plants Spores not seed Sporophytes Rhizomatous, clumping, single stem Polystichum mandersonii

25 Ferns (cont.) Adventitious roots Leaves = fronds Compound pinnate fronds Pinnae on rachis held up by petiole New fronds = “fiddleheads” Fiddleheads

26 Ferns (cont.) Homosporus Sori on underside of fronds Sporangia clustered in sori

27 Ferns (cont.) Osmunda sp. Pteridium sp.

28 Fern Life Cycle

29 Ferns (cont.) Spores in the sporangium

30 Ferns (cont.) Indusia covers the sori

31 Ferns (cont.) Meiosis in sporangium Indusium ruptures Sporangium Indusium

32 Ferns (cont.) Annulus cells contract Lip cells rupture Spores ejected

33 Ferns (cont.) Spore germinates into filamentous gametophyte Protonema develops into prothallus Filamentous Gametophyte

34 Ferns (cont.) Rhizoids develop Antheridium forms Archegonia forms Free water is necessary Fertilization occurs Zygote forms

35 Ferns (cont.) Prothallus used as food source First leaf and roots The new sporophyte

36 Ferns (cont.)


38 Gymnosperms Divisions Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, Coniferophyta & Gnetophyta “Naked Seeds” Primitive plants Fossil records No flowers About 800 species

39 Gymnosperms (cont.) Up to 15 cotyledons No endosperm Food stored in female (1n) gametophyte tissue in seed

40 Gymnosperms (cont.) Woody cones or leathery berries

41 Gymnosperms (cont.)

42 “Leaves” have one or two vascular bundles No cambium in foliage

43 Gymnosperms (cont.) Woody and branching Root system also woody and branching Wind pollinated Vascular tissue in stems in discrete rings

44 See Handouts: Principles of Horticulture: Plant Structures and Pruning by G.B. Smith

45 Gymnosperms (cont.) Needles Needle-like Overlapping scales Fused overlapping scales Pines in fascicles

46 Cycadophyta Cycas sp.

47 Ginkgophyta

48 Coniferophyta

49 Gnetophyta

50 Welwitschia


52 Ephedra

53 Gnetum

54 The Flowering Plants Division Anthophyta Angiosperms Flowering plants Angiosperms divided into two groups 1.Monocotyledones – the monocots 2.Dicotyledones – the dicots

55 Monocots vs. Dicots About 235,000 species of flowering plants About 170,000 species of dicots About 65,000 species of monocots

56 Flower Parts Monocot flower parts in 3s

57 Flower Parts Dicot parts in 4s and 5s

58 Flower Parts

59 See Handouts: The Flower Summary Overall Flower Morphology

60 Flower Morphology Morphology refers to shape a : branch of biology that deals with the form and structure of animals and plants b : the form and structure of an organism or any of its parts Merriam Webster online dictionary



63 Flower Morphology Stigma, style and ovary Collectively referred to as the pistil Female parts of the flower

64 Flower Morphology Anther and filament Collectively referred to as the stamen Pollen occurs on the anther Male parts of the flower

65 Flower Morphology Petals – modified leaves Often large and scented in insect pollenated plants Small and dull in wind pollinated plants Corolla – the collective term for flower petals

66 Flower Morphology Not all flowers have separate petals Hence the term corolla

67 Flower Morphology Sepals – modified leaves Some green, some colored Calyx – the collective term for sepals

68 Flower Morphology Monoecious both sexes occurring on the same plant... in separate male and female flowers

69 Flower Morphology Dioecious sexes occurring in separate plants in separate male and female flowers

70 Flower Morphology Hermaphrodite (bisexual) both sexes occur in same flower

71 Flower Morphology Complete flowers contains all four main flower parts corolla, calyx, pistil & stamen Incomplete flowers missing any one or more of the four parts

72 Flower Morphology Perfect flowers contains both pistil and stamen in the same flower Imperfect flowers missing either pistil or stamen

73 Symmetry Bilateral symmetry Right mirrors left Top does not mirror bottom Pelargonium peltatum Ivy Geranium

74 Symmetry Radial symmetry Right mirrors left Top mirrors bottom Malus sp. Crabapple

75 Seeds Monocot Seeds have endosperm for food storage

76 Seeds Dicots use cotyledons for food stores

77 Cotyledons Monocots have a single cotyledon

78 Cotyledons Dicots have a pair of cotyledons

79 Cotyledons

80 The Vascular System Monocots have random vascular bundles

81 The Vascular System Dicots have discrete vascular rings

82 Above the Ground Monocots are non-woody They tend to be leafy

83 Above the Ground Dicots are woody and branching

84 The Leaves Monocots have parallel venation

85 The Leaves More parallel venation

86 The Leaves Monocot leaves tatter in the wind

87 The Leaves Dicots have netted venation

88 The Root System Monocots have a fibrous root system

89 The Root System Dicots have a woody, branching root system

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