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Monocots, Dicots, Gymnosperms & Ferns

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Presentation on theme: "Monocots, Dicots, Gymnosperms & Ferns"— Presentation transcript:

1 Monocots, Dicots, Gymnosperms & Ferns
Plant Classification & Basic Plant Groups for the Landscape

2 Classification of Plants
Taxonomic classification starts with the least specific – “it’s a plant” And ends with the most specific – “the individual plant by name” Kingdom Division Class Order Family Genus Species

3 Classification of Plants
It all begins with the Plant Kingdom Kingdom Plantae Similarities They all photosynthesize

4 See Handouts: Classifications of Living Organisms Traditionally Regarded as Plants Plant Morphology: A Summary

5 Division Division (synonymous with phylum) Suffix –phyta
Divided into three (3) groups

6 Division Seedless, nonvascular plants Bryophyta – the bryophytes
Mosses & liverworts

7 Division Seedless vascular plants Sphenophyta – horsetails Pterophyta – ferns Both used in landscaping

8 Division Seed bearing vascular plants Cycadophyta – cycads
Ginkgophyta – ginkgo or maidenhair Coniferophyta – conifer Gnetophyta – gnetophytes All fall into the group “Gymnosperms” – naked seed

9 Division Anthophyta – angiosperms Flowering plants
Divided into two (2) classes Monocotyledons – monocots Dicotyledons - dicots

10 Order Groups of related families based on phylogenetic unity (fossil records, comparative anatomy, etc.) Suffix –ales Rosales

11 Family Grouped by similar genera Similarities in flowering
Large families split into tribes Similar tribes split into sub-families Similarities in foliage are NOT reliable for identification Suffix –aceae Rosaceae

12 Genus Always italicized OR underlined Generic name form
First part of Latin binomial naming system Comprises a group of obviously similar species

13 Genus Usually related by reproductive organs and methods Can be further broken down into sub-genera

14 species In most cases it’s lowercase, italicized OR underlined
In some cases it may be capitalized and in ‘Single Quotes’

15 species Specific epithet
Second part of the Latin binomial naming system Refers to an individual group

16 species Groups typically do not cross sexually Sexual crosses are usually sterile Sub-species are species separated by environmental factors

17 Varieties (var.) Usually in ‘single quotes’
Tends to be a variation in the species Typically naturally occurring Maybe only represented by something as simple as foliage color or growth habit

18 Cultivars (Cv.) Often Capitalized and in ‘Single Quotes’ Cultivated variety produced by horticultural techniques and breeding

19 Classification of Plants
Genus x species x = hybrid cross between two different species Can be naturally occurring or man-made

20 Classification of Plants
x Genus species x = hybrid cross between two different genera Can be naturally occurring or man-made

21 Horsetails Division Sphenophyta
Equisetum is the only genus in the division Scouring rush About 35 species of Equisetum

22 Horsetails Fossil records Seedless vascular plants Spores not seeds
Jointed, tubular stems Stems grooved

23 Horsetails Rhizomatous Invasive in the landscape

24 Polystichum mandersonii
Ferns Division Pterophyta Primitive plant group Fossil records 12,000 species Seedless vascular plants Spores not seed Sporophytes Rhizomatous, clumping, single stem Ferns Ferns are primitive plants well represented in fossil records There about 12,000 known species Ferns are seedless vascular plants Mature ferns are referred to as a sporophyte They reproduces by spores not seeds About 2/3s of the world’s ferns are found in the tropics, the rest in temperate regions including the deserts Most ferns spread by rhizomes, some are clumping Polystichum mandersonii

25 Ferns (cont.) Adventitious roots Leaves = fronds
Compound pinnate fronds Pinnae on rachis held up by petiole New fronds = “fiddleheads” Ferns (cont.) Adventitious roots develop from the underside of the rhizomes Leaves are referred to as fronds Leaves are usually compound pinnate Leaf pinnae are attached to the rachis and held up by the petiole or stipe New leaves are coiled as they emerge and are referred to as “fiddleheads” Fiddleheads

26 Ferns (cont.) Homosporus Sori on underside of fronds
Sporangia clustered in sori Ferns (cont.) Most ferns are homosporus – they produce only one “type” of spores Sporangia are found on under sides of fronds, on modified fronds, or on separate stalks Sporangia are arranged into groups or clusters called sori, sorus (pl.)

27 Ferns (cont.) Ferns (cont.) Pteridium sp. Osmunda sp.

28 Fern Life Cycle Fern Life Cycle

29 Ferns (cont.) Spores in the sporangium Ferns (cont.)
Spores are contained within the sporangium

30 Ferns (cont.) Indusia covers the sori Ferns (cont.)
An indusia covers the sori (indusium sing.)

31 Ferns (cont.) Meiosis in sporangium Indusium ruptures Sporangium
Meiosis occurs in the sporangia When sporangia are ripe the indusium ruptures Indusium

32 Ferns (cont.) Annulus cells contract Lip cells rupture Spores ejected
The annulus cells contract causing lip cells to rupture The spores are ejected through the opening

33 Ferns (cont.) Spore germinates into filamentous gametophyte
Protonema develops into prothallus Ferns (cont.) Spores germinates and develop into young filamentous gametophytes called protonema The protonema develops into prothallus The prothallus is amorphous to heart-shaped with a “notched” end Filamentous Gametophyte

34 Ferns (cont.) Rhizoids develop Antheridium forms Archegonia forms
Free water is necessary Fertilization occurs Zygote forms Ferns (cont.) Rhizoids develop on underside of the prothallus Antheridium containing male sperm cells develop on underside of prothallus usually close to the rhizoids Archegonia containing female egg cells develop on underside of prothallus usually closer to the notched end Free water is required for sperm cells to find egg cells Zygote forms immediately after fertilization

35 Ferns (cont.) Prothallus used as food source First leaf and roots
The new sporophyte Ferns (cont.) As the embryo develops the prothallus is used for the initial food source and eventually dies off The first roots with and leaf form Rhizomes and leaves form as the plant matures to create the new sporophyte generation

36 Ferns (cont.) Ferns (cont.)

37 Ferns (cont.) Ferns (cont.)

38 Gymnosperms Divisions Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, Coniferophyta & Gnetophyta “Naked Seeds” Primitive plants Fossil records No flowers About 800 species Gymnosperms Divisions Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, Coniferophyta and Gnetophyta Gymnosperm literally means “Naked seeds” Gymnosperms are primitive plants well represented in fossil records Gymnosperms do not bear flowers

39 Gymnosperms (cont.) Up to 15 cotyledons No endosperm
Food stored in female (1n) gametophyte tissue in seed Gymnosperms (cont.) Seedlings can have up to 15 cotyledons The seed has no endosperm - food storage is contained in the female haploid gametophyte tissue in the seed

40 Gymnosperms (cont.) Woody cones or leathery berries
The seeds are developed in a woody cone or leathery “berry-like” structures – they are not developed within an ovary or fruit

41 Gymnosperms (cont.) Gymnosperms (cont.)

42 Gymnosperms (cont.) “Leaves” have one or two vascular bundles
No cambium in foliage Gymnosperms (cont.) Leaves have one or two vascular bundles of xylem and phloem There is no cambium in or around the vascular system in the leaves

43 Gymnosperms (cont.) Woody and branching
Root system also woody and branching Wind pollinated Vascular tissue in stems in discrete rings Gymnosperms (cont.) Gymnosperms are typically woody, branching plants with exception of the Cycads Gymnosperms also have a woody, branching root system Most gymnosperms are passively pollinated or wind pollinated The vascular tissue xylem, phloem and cambium are in discrete vascular rings

44 See Handouts: Principles of Horticulture: Plant Structures and Pruning by G.B. Smith

45 Gymnosperms (cont.) Needles Needle-like Overlapping scales
Fused overlapping scales Pines in fascicles Gymnosperms (cont.) Leaves are needles, needle-like, overlapping scales, or fused overlapping scales

46 Cycadophyta Gymnosperms (cont.) Cycadophyta The Cycads Cycas sp.

47 Ginkgophyta Gymnosperms (cont.) Ginkgophyta Ginkgo biloba
The only member of the order

48 Coniferophyta Gymnosperms (cont.) Coniferophyta Conifers
Cone-bearing plants Pines Cypress Cedars Podocarpus Etc., etc., etc…..

49 Gnetophyta Gymnosperms (cont.) Gnetophyta Gnetophytes Ephedra Gnetum

50 Welwitschia Welwitschia

51 Welwitschia

52 Ephedra Ephedra

53 Gnetum Gnetum

54 The Flowering Plants Division Anthophyta Angiosperms Flowering plants
Angiosperms divided into two groups Monocotyledones – the monocots Dicotyledones – the dicots The Flowering Plants Division Anthophyta The general term for the flowering plants are the Angiosperms The angiosperms are divided into two groups

55 Monocots vs. Dicots About 235,000 species of flowering plants
About 170,000 species of dicots About 65,000 species of monocots Monocots vs. Dicots There are over 235,000 species of angiosperms (flowering plants) About 170,000 species of dicots and about 65,000 species of monocots

56 Flower Parts Monocot flower parts in 3s The Flowering Plants (cont.)
Monocots have flower parts (sepals, petals and anthers) in multiples of 3’s

57 Flower Parts Dicot parts in 4s and 5s The Flowering Plants (cont.)
Dicots have flower parts (sepals, petals and anthers) in multiples of 4’s and 5’s

58 Flower Parts

59 See Handouts: The Flower Summary Overall Flower Morphology

60 Flower Morphology Morphology refers to shape
a : branch of biology that deals with the form and structure of animals and plants b : the form and structure of an organism or any of its parts Merriam Webster online dictionary



63 Flower Morphology Stigma, style and ovary
Collectively referred to as the pistil Female parts of the flower

64 Flower Morphology Anther and filament
Collectively referred to as the stamen Pollen occurs on the anther Male parts of the flower

65 Flower Morphology Petals – modified leaves
Often large and scented in insect pollenated plants Small and dull in wind pollinated plants Corolla – the collective term for flower petals

66 Flower Morphology Not all flowers have separate petals Hence the term corolla

67 Flower Morphology Sepals – modified leaves Some green, some colored
Calyx – the collective term for sepals

68 Flower Morphology Monoecious
both sexes occurring on the same plant . . . in separate male and female flowers

69 Flower Morphology Dioecious sexes occurring in separate plants
in separate male and female flowers

70 Flower Morphology Hermaphrodite (bisexual)
both sexes occur in same flower

71 Flower Morphology Complete flowers Incomplete flowers
contains all four main flower parts corolla, calyx, pistil & stamen Incomplete flowers missing any one or more of the four parts

72 Flower Morphology Perfect flowers Imperfect flowers
contains both pistil and stamen in the same flower Imperfect flowers missing either pistil or stamen

73 Symmetry Bilateral symmetry Right mirrors left
Top does not mirror bottom Pelargonium peltatum Ivy Geranium

74 Symmetry Radial symmetry Right mirrors left Top mirrors bottom
Malus sp. Crabapple

75 Seeds Monocot Seeds have endosperm for food storage
Flowering Plants (cont.) Flower Parts Seeds Monocot seeds rely on endosperm as food storage for the dormant and developing seed

76 Seeds Dicots use cotyledons for food stores Flowering Plants (cont.)
Flower Parts Seeds Dicots rely on stored energy in the cotyledons

77 Cotyledons Monocots have a single cotyledon The Flowering Plants
Flower Parts Cotyledons Monocots have a single cotyledon or primary leaf

78 Cotyledons Dicots have a pair of cotyledons The Flowering Plants
Flower Parts Cotyledons Dicots have a pair of cotyledons that are often used for food storage

79 Cotyledons The Flowering Plants Flower Parts Cotyledons
Dicot vs. Monocot comparison

80 The Vascular System Monocots have random vascular bundles
The Flowering Plants The Vascular System Monocot’s vascular systems consist of random vascular bundles of xylem and phloem Monocots are not “woody” the may appear “wood-like” as in palms

81 The Vascular System Dicots have discrete vascular rings
The Flowering Plants The Vascular System Dicot’s vascular consists of a discrete system of vascular rings of xylem and phloem Dicots can be herbaceous but are most often woody

82 Above the Ground Monocots are non-woody They tend to be leafy
The Flowering Plants Above the Ground Monocots do not have a woody-branching above ground system Monocots appearance: Grass-like Long sword-like leaves

83 Above the Ground Dicots are woody and branching The Flowering Plants
Most dicots are woody and branching Some are herbaceous

84 The Leaves Monocots have parallel venation The Flowering Plants
Monocots typically have narrow strap-like leaves Monocots have parallel venation

85 The Leaves More parallel venation

86 The Leaves Monocot leaves tatter in the wind

87 The Leaves Dicots have netted venation The Flowering Plants The Leaves
Dicots have leaves in many forms They have a “netted” vein pattern

88 The Root System Monocots have a fibrous root system
The Flowering Plants Below the Ground The Root System The monocot root system is non-branching and fibrous – like a mop head The roots are typically defined as “adventitious”

89 The Root System Dicots have a woody, branching root system
The Flowering Plants Below the Ground The Root System The dicot root system is woody and branching

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