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What is a plant? Multicellular Eukaryotic cell With cell wall of cellulose Waxy, protective coating called cuticle Usually contains chlorophyll for its.

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Presentation on theme: "What is a plant? Multicellular Eukaryotic cell With cell wall of cellulose Waxy, protective coating called cuticle Usually contains chlorophyll for its."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is a plant? Multicellular Eukaryotic cell With cell wall of cellulose Waxy, protective coating called cuticle Usually contains chlorophyll for its role as an autotroph (photosynthesis)

2 Plant Structures External plant structures such as leaves, stems, roots, flowers, fruits, and seeds are known as plant organs. Each organ is an organized group of tissues that works together to perform a specific function. These structures can be divided into two groups: sexual reproductive and vegetative. Sexual reproductive parts produce seed; they include flower buds, flowers, fruit, and seeds. Vegetative parts include roots, stems, shoot buds, and leaves; they are not directly involved in sexual reproduction. Vegetative parts often are used in asexual forms of reproduction such as cuttings, budding, or grafting.

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4 Alternation of Generations Reproduction in Plants

5 Archegonia/Antheridia e.g., Eggs/Sperm Forms a Zygote For growth

6 Sporophyte spore plant Diploid state Many common plants have this as their dominant form

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9 Sporangium Specialized organ Diploid cells Produces hapliod spores to release to the environment

10 Meiosis in Sporangium Reduction division Starts with diploid number, finishes with haploid number in the new cells (spores)

11 Spore Haploid asexual reproductive cell Released into the environment

12 Mitosis Growth of cell by replication of heredity and cell division into a multi-cellular organism

13 Gametophyte gamete plant Produces gametes (sex cells) for sexual reproduction Eggs from archegonia Sperm from the antheridia

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15 Fertilization Sperm nucleus unites with egg nucleus deep in the ovary of the plant

16 Mitosis Growth of cell by replication of heredity and cell division into a multi-cellular organism

17 This multicellular organism is the next generation of sporophyte…..you are back to square one!

18 Archegonia/Antheridia e.g., Eggs/Sperm Forms a Zygote For growth

19 Plant Phylogeny Bryophyta – nonvascular, non-seed plants like mosses and liverworts Psilophyta – non-seed vascular plants like tropical/subtropical whisk ferns Lycophyta – non-seed vascular plants like club mosses Sphenophyta – non-seed vascular plants like horsetails

20 Plant Phylogeny (cont.) Pterophyta – non-seed vascular plants like the ferns Cycadophyta – vascular seed plants like the palm-like cycads Gnetophyta – unusual, distinctive vascular seed plants like Welwitschia Ginkgophyta – very rare vascular seed tree with fan-shaped leaves (1 species)

21 Plant Phylogeny (cont.) Coniferophyta – cone-bearing vascular seed plants like pine trees Anthophyta – flowering vascular seed plants like roses (dicots) and lilies (monocots)

22 Bryophyta Non-vascular, so……. Live in moist sheltered places Non-seed Mosses, hornworts, and liverworts Plant life cycle needs water for sperm Vegetative reproduction also

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25 1 = sporophyte 2 = gametophyte 3 = sporangium case 4 = stalk

26 Ferns and their allies Vascular plants (major advancement) need water for reproduction Seedless Alternation of Generations Ferns, club moss, horsetails The beginnings of true organs

27 Roots to anchor, absorb water and minerals, and store food Leaves for photosynthesis and storage of food Stems for support, storage, and transport of water up and food down (Flowers for reproduction, yielding the fruit in seed plants)

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29 Sporophyte Gametophyte with young sporophyte

30 Seed Plants Vascular Produce seeds (major advancement) Gymnosperms (bear seeds naked on bracts of cones) and Angiosperms (flowering plants with seeds in tissues) Free of water because male gametophyte is in pollen grain carried by wind, water, insects, or small animals

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32 Gymnosperms Cone bearers Gnetophytes, cycads, gingkoes, conifers Alternation of Generations

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34 Naked Seeds Seeds lying uncovered on the bract

35 Alternation of Generations

36 Angiosperms (Phylum Anthophyta) Flowering plants Vascular seed plants Fruits with seeds –Dry fruits –Fleshy fruits Most of the commons plants we know Alternation of Generations

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39 The Typical Flower (reproductive organ)

40 A comparison of Classes Dicotyledonae vs Monocotyledonae

41 XYLEM AND PHLOEM XYLEM = water UP XYLEM = water UP PHLOEM = food DOWN PHLOEM = food DOWN VASCULAR BUNDLES HERBACEOUS STEM - GREENWOODY TREE

42 Plant Life Spans Annual – germinate, grow, flower, seed, and die in one growing season Biennial – germinate, grow, develop first season; flower, seed, and die second season Perennial – live and flower (seed) for many seasons

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