Presentation on theme: "PARAGRAPH REVIEW GEEN 1201 & 1103 VIRTUAL LAB MODULE."— Presentation transcript:
PARAGRAPH REVIEW GEEN 1201 & 1103 VIRTUAL LAB MODULE
DEFINITION A paragraph can be defined as a group of sentences that support or develop one central idea. It is very important to understand that the paragraph has only one central idea, and that all the other sentences are related to this central idea.
Presentation Remember, a paragraph begins with an indentation. The paragraph should be neither too short (underdeveloped) nor too long (too many subtopics). Take a look at the following paragraph:
Presentation We had a terrible storm last weekend. It rained very hard, so most of the streets were flooded and many cars were left stranded for three hours. The nearby river flooded the downtown section. Some people were forced to abandon their homes or businesses and take refuge in the shelter that was opened on Main Street. Furthermore, the wind blew up to 60 miles an hour, and trees were knocked down. One tall oak tree hit a main power supply line and blacked out the whole town for more than four hours. My neighborhood was not flooded; however, because of the strong wind, the streets were full of knocked down tree branches and other debris. It was the worst storm since I moved to this town. The paragraph has one central idea: The terrible storm. The rest of the sentences are related to this central idea.
Characteristics · One central idea · Unity · Coherence · Adequate development A good paragraph
Central idea This central idea is often called the topic sentence. It’s the idea that controls the paragraph. central ideatopic sentence
How to arrive to a central idea: Choose a subject Limit your subject: Limiting your subject means focusing on one single idea, one Example: Subject: Christmas You cannot write a paragraph about Christmas. The topic is too broad. Therefore, you will have to focus on one aspect, one topic.
Limiting: You could write about one of the following topics: a) How your family celebrates Christmas, or b) Why you enjoy Christmas, or c) Why you hate Christmas
Unity: To be effective, a paragraph needs unity. In other words, all sentences within the paragraph are related to the central idea. Take another look at the paragraph about the terrible storm.
The Storm We had a terrible storm last weekend. It rained very hard, so most of the streets were flooded and many cars were left stranded for three hours. The nearby river flooded the downtown section. Some people were forced to abandon their homes or businesses and take refuge in the shelter that was opened on Main Street. Furthermore, the wind blew up to 60 miles an hour, and trees were knocked down. One tall oak tree hit a main power supply line and blacked out the whole town for more than four hours. My neighborhood was not flooded; however, because of the strong wind, the streets were full of knocked down tree branches and other debris. It was the worst storm since I moved to this town. The first sentence contains the central idea. All the other sentences are related to the storm in this specific town.
Coherence A paragraph is coherent when readers can easily follow the progression of the thought. One idea is smoothly linked to the next, logically arranged and connected. In other words, coherence is the orderly presentation of ideas. Transition words help show the relationship between one sentence or thought and another.
Adequate development The paragraph follows a pattern of development and its three parts are fully developed. An adequately developed paragraph has an introduction (topic sentence), the discussion (supporting details), and the conclusion. The discussion is the most important and the longest part of the paragraph. The introduction and the conclusion are shorter.
Again take a look at the previous paragraph “ The Storm Introduction: We had a terrible storm last weekend. (One sentence) Supporting details: It rained…..debris (Six sentences) Conclusion: It was…..town (One sentence)
Brainstorming Brainstorming is a technique that helps limit a subject. When you brainstorming, you write down all the ideas that you generate about your subject. To brainstorm you can: 1) Freewrite 2) Map/Cluster 3) List
FREEWRITE Freewrite: Subject: Christmas. Christmas is a joyous celebration. People enjoy sharing. The malls are full of shoppers. It is a season for family reunions. I enjoy celebrating Christmas with my family. We meet at my grandma’s. There are a lot of things I don’t like about Christmas. All the streets are decorated. I hate the long lines in the stores……
List Family reunion Good things Gifts Long lines Negative aspects of Christmas Festivity Debts Weight gain Long lost relatives No parking space Decorations
Basic parts of a paragraph Definition: A paragraph can be defined as a group of sentences that supports a main idea. A paragraph has three main parts: 1. Topic sentence 2. Supporting details 3. Concluding sentence
Topic Sentence The topic sentence: The topic sentence is the sentence that carries the main idea of the paragraph. It gives the paragraph focus and clarity. The topic sentence has two parts: a general idea and a controlling idea. The controlling idea limits the paragraph. Example: My favorite place is my living room.
How Must the Topic Sentence Be: A topic sentence must be: · A concise, clear, specific sentence · A sentence that states one idea. · A sentence that can be developed into a paragraph.
Practice. Read the following sentences. Notice the correct topic sentences. Several actions should be taken to remove drunk drivers from our streets. (Correct. You can develop this sentence into a paragraph by mentioning and explaining at least three actions that should be taken to make our streets safer). a.Strict Laws b. Compulsory Workshop c. Force Community Work
Topic Sentence Review María has two sisters. ( This sentence cannot be developed into a paragraph) María and her sister are complete opposites. (Correct.! Your paragraph will present the things that make these two sisters complete opposite.)
Topic Sentence Review Saint Lucia is a Caribbean island. (That’s a fact that cannot be developed into a paragraph.) Saint Lucia’s great natural resources make it the perfect place to spend a weekend close to nature. (OK. You are going to present these great natural resources that make of Saint Lucia a perfect place for a nature weekend.)
Supporting details: What are supporting details? They are major points that help you prove the point you made in your topic sentence. Good supporting details are related to the topic sentence and mainly to its controlling idea.
How many supporting details? A standard paragraph has three (3) major supporting details (SD); however, paragraphs may have more or less supporting details.
Examples of support 1. Topic sentence: Ponce has a lot to offer to our tourists. A. Castillo Seralles B. Museum of Ponce C. La Guancha
Example of Support 2. Topic sentence: Rincon is the perfect place for surfers. A. Surfing shops B. Right waves C. Surfing competitions
Example of Support Topic sentence: My ninety-year old grandma still has a lot of energy. A. Works in her garden B. Exercises regularly C. Is the heart of any party
YOU TRY IT First, the topic sentence: My mother was very special. Topic Controlling idea
Provide Your Support Second, three main supporting details: 1. Hard worker 2. Very supportive 3. Great hostess
Provide Specific Support Now we are going to add specific details to each major supporting statement. A. Supporting detail: Hard worker: · Seamstress · Baker B. Supporting detail: Very supportive · School · Career C. Supporting detail: Great hostess · Great cook · Good entertainer
Sample Paragraph My mother was very special. For one thing, she was a hard worker. We were quite poor, but there was always food on the table because of my mom’s hard work. On her own, she learned how to sew the most beautiful dresses and became the barrio’s seamstress. She could also bake all kinds of cakes and bread, and prepare exquisite appetizers. I remember her successfully catering several public and private social events. Furthermore, she baked countless wedding cakes always to the satisfaction of her clients.
Continuation Sample Paragraph My mom was also very supportive of her children. She would stay up late keeping us company while we were studying for tests or completing school projects. She always bought us all our books and school supplies. She respected and supported our career choices. Finally, she was a great hostess. She would prepare the finest dishes for her guests, arrange the table to perfection, and provide the coziest atmosphere for any of her parties. I look at her qualities as her legacy to her children.
The concluding sentence Definition: What is a concluding sentence? It is the last sentence of the paragraph. It is a general statement that brings the paragraph to a close.
Kinds of concluding sentences: To write a concluding sentence you could: 1. Restate the topic sentence using different words, in other words, paraphrase the topic sentence. 2. Summarize the main point of the paragraph. 3. Make a prediction. 4. Give an opinion.
Examples of Conclusions: 1. Restate the topic sentence: In my diary I just wrote: Today was the best day of my life. 2. Summary: To summarize, peer pressure will always be in every aspect of our lives. The important thing is to be able to handle the pressure. 3. Prediction: Technology is, therefore, responsible for most people’s state of loneliness. 4. Opinion: I believe that promoting character development as part of the curriculum will help forge better balanced individuals.
The title The title is not a complete sentence. The title summarizes the paragraph. My Worst Professor The Greatest Salesman of the World The Life of Professor McCourt
What is a Process Paragraph? It is a paragraph that explains a process, procedure, or a sequence. It tells you how something is done. A process paragraph explains how to create something, understand something, or do something. For example: How to build a model truck How to write a paragraph How to understand a short story
How to write a Process Paragraph: Decide on the process. Divide it into distinct steps. List the steps in chronological order. Use time words/phrases to connect the steps. Present the result.
Example of a Process Paragraph Although preparing waffles is not complicated, it is necessary to follow each step carefully. First, prepare the batter according to the package directions. Make sure you follow the instructions carefully. Next, heat the waffle iron. The iron will be hot enough when drops of water “bounce” on the surface. Now, as indicated in the instructions, pour the batter onto the hot waffle iron and bake it until steaming stops. Finally, remove carefully. You should have a delicious, crispy, and golden waffle. Pour some syrup on it and enjoy.
What is a narrative paragraph? A narrative paragraph is a paragraph that tells a story or relates an event. Narrating means writing about things that happened, following the order in which these events happened.
Steps on how to write a Narrative Paragraph Choose the event that you want to recount Write a topic sentence that arouses the reader’s interest Focus your paragraph on one main incident Write the event using a chronological order, that is the order in which the event occurred Write an ending to the narrative, in other words write the outcome of the event. Unless otherwise indicated, most narratives are related using the past tense.
Steps to writing a Narrative Paragraph Choose the event (what happened? To whom, to what did it happen?) 2) Topic sentence ( It should be appealing) 3) Focus on one main incident (That will be the controlling idea of your paragraph) 4) Write the event using chronological order 5) Your ending is the conclusion of your paragraph. It could present the effect the event had on you, your reaction, a summary of the paragraph, a question…) 6) Pay close attention to the verbs. The main tense will be the past; however, in some instance you will have to switch to other tenses. When you read the following narrative paragraph pay close attention to the tenses, that will help you understand how these verbs works.