Presentation on theme: "Unit 1. Paragraph to Short Essay Part 2. Reference: Morenberg, M. & Sommers, J. (2003). The Writer's Options: Lessons in Style and Arrangement, p. 143-158."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 1. Paragraph to Short Essay Part 2. Reference: Morenberg, M. & Sommers, J. (2003). The Writer's Options: Lessons in Style and Arrangement, p. 143-158.
Review Topic sentence Unity Coherence Cohesion Sentences Words Smallest units Larger units Paragraphs Essays
Coherence & Cohesion Coherence 連貫性 Cohesion 緊密性 Relationship between ideas.Relationships between sentences, or parts of sentences. To use a pattern of organization. To use language devices (words & phrases). 1.Emphatic order 2.Chronological order 3.Spatial order 1.Connectives. 2.References 3.Structural sentences.
A. Using connectives and connective phrases The second sentence gives an illustration or example The second sentence adds another point The second sentence restates, summarizes, or shows a result The second sentence expresses a contrast For example, For instance, For one thing, To illustrate, and, also, too, then, first, second, next, Furthermore, Moreover, In addition, so, thus, In fact, Therefore, As a result, Accordingly, In other words, but, still, yet, However, Even so, Nevertheless, By contrast, On the other hand,
B. Using reference to a previously stated word or phrase Repeat words – Mysterious event. ….. Nothing is more mysterious than her disappearance. Use pronouns – Virgo….it…it…it… Create synonyms – Contract = Lease
C. Arranging sentences into structural patterns Place parallel ideas into parallel structures. – From the east,…. From the south,…. Organize old and new information into proper sequences.
From Paragraph to Short Essay Reference: Folse, K., Solomon, E. & Clabeaux, D. (2006). From Great Paragraphs to Great Essays, p.71-94.
From Paragraph to Short Essay Similarity & Difference? – Difference: an essay is longer than a paragraph. – Similarity: both have similar structures. STRUCTURE ParagraphShort Essay Introduction topic sentencethesis statement Body paragraph Few sentences to support the idea of the topic sentence One or two paragraph to develop the idea of the thesis statement. Conclusion The final sentence. Summarize the ideas. The final paragraph. Summarize the ideas.
CONTENT ParagraphShort Essay Introduction The topic sentence states the topic and the controlling idea. The introductory paragraph states the topic. The thesis statement states the controlling idea. Body paragraph The supporting sentences of the paragraph support the idea in the topic sentence. The body paragraphs support the idea in the thesis statement. Each boy paragraph has a topic sentence. Conclusion The concluding sentence summarize the idea in the topic sentence. The essay conclusion summarize the idea on the thesis statement..
Rhetorical Focus An effective essay must have the following elements. Introduction: – Hook. – Background. – Thesis statement. Body paragraph(s): – A topic sentence followed by supporting details. Conclusion: – Summary or restatement of the thesis statement.
Thesis statement is very important because it gives the topic and the controlling idea of the essay. The thesis statement often acts as an outline for the rest of your essay because it summarizes your thoughts, and the reasons you believe your main point is true. Exercise 3A. (p.18) Exercise 3B. (p.19) El Salvador (Spanish) 薩爾瓦多
Eight steps in writing an essay True ease in writing comes from art, not chance, as those move easiest who have learned to dance. --Alexander Pope.
Effective writers approach an essay as many small pieces of writing that are done step by step. An essay is just a collection of paragraph, organized much like an individual paragraph with an introduction, a body, and a conclusion.
Choose a topic. – Choose sth familiar or you are interested in and want to know more. Brainstorming. – Freewriting. Listing. Clustering. Decide the purpose of writing. – Describing? Comparing? Showing cause/effect? Arguing? Write a thesis statement. – Implied thesis & Stated thesis Buying a car is not as easy as it sounds because there are many factors to consider. Buyers should keep in mind many factors when purchasing a car: price, gas mileage, and functionality.
Creating an outline. – Develop supporting details. – Write the conclusion. Writing a first draft. Revising & Editing – Revise: refine thesis statement, reorganize materials, add details, reword sentences. – Edit: correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors. Writing a final draft and submitting your work.
Editing your writing Reference: McDonald, S. & Salomone, W. (2004). The Writer’s Response: A Reading based approach to college writing, p.307-314.
Sentences A complete sentence must contain at least one main clause. A main clause contains a subject and a verb, and express a complete idea. Common error of writing sentences: – Run-on sentences Fused sentences Comma splices – Sentence fragment Dependent sentences
Run-on Sentences The sentence runs on too long and confuse the readers. In a run-on sentence, important punctuation is missing between the clauses. Fused sentences: two or more main clauses are joined without a coordinating conjunction and without punctuation. – Tina jumped into the pool she waved at her father. Comma splice: two or more clauses are joined with a comma but without a coordinating conjunction. – Tina jumped into the pool, she waved at her father. – I saved money to take a trip, however, I had to change my plan at the last minutes.
Solution: – Punctuate the clauses as two separate sentences. – Use a comma and a conjunction. – Use a semicolon. – Use a semicolon and a conjunction. *Tina won the lottery she decided to buy a car. Tina won the lottery, so she decided to buy a car. Tina won the lottery; she decided to buy a car. Tina won the lottery; therefore, she decided to buy a car. When Tina won the lottery, she decided to buy a car.
Sentence Fragment A sentence fragment occurs when a group of words that lacks a main clause in punctuated as a sentence. Some fragment contains no clause at all. – The child in the park. Some fragments contains a verb but still no clause. – The child playing in the park. Some fragments contains a subordinate clause (dependent clause) but no main clause. – As the child played in the park. – Because the swings in the park were wet.
Dependent Clauses A dependent clause is a clause that is not a complete sentence by itself. It has a subject and a verb, but it does not have a complete idea. It usually begins with a subordinate conjunction. (when, because, before, since…) Solution: It must always be attached to a main (independent) clause to make one complete sentence.