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Constitutional Disputes and Crises
By: Nick King, leyton Bush, Trevor Leapley, & Preeyae Roper
The Nullification Crisis
1828, congress adopted a high tariff know as the Tariff of Abominations. To promote American industry and to embarrass President Adams. Adams did eventually sign the tariff, and it helped bring about his defeat in 1828. Jacksons presidency featured a number of conflicts and crises Industrial North favored the protective tariffs but the south disliked it.
Calhoun Champions Nullification
Calhoun was Jacksons vice President from South Carolina, violently opposed the tariff. He was a very strong nationalist. Opinions changed about the tariff after the Missouri controversy of 1819 and 1820. Convinced him that the future of slavery required a stronger defense of states rights. Calhoun and his supporters wanted Jackson to reject the protection tariff.
Nullification(Cont). Webster Defends the Union The Crisis Deepens
Daniel Webster became the great champion of nationalism. Webster defined the union as the creation of the American people rather than of the states. In 1833, he led the way for pushing for a passage of a Force Bill, giving Jackson authority to use troops to enforce federal law in South Carolina. In March a special convention suspended the states ordinance of nullification. The Crisis Deepens In 1832, the south legislature nullified the protective tariff and prohibited the collection of federal tariff duties in south Carolina after February 1, 1833. State threatened to secede against South Carolina Calhoun resigned from vice presidency and became a senator. Jackson supported states’ rights and wanted a lower tariff.
The Bank War Jackson opposes the bank THE WHIg PARTY FORMS
Jacksonian democrats disliked the second bank of the united states, which was charted by congress. The bank had many supporters in congress. 1832, they voted to renew the bank’s charter, Jackson vetoed the renewal. Denounced the bank as “unauthorized by the constitution.” Led by Henry Clay and Daniel Webster, they started the Whig party. They were nationalist who wanted a strong federal government to manage the economy. Appealed to northern protestants who wanted the government to promote moral reform. When John Marshall died in 1835, Jackson rewarded Taney by appointing him chief Justice of the US.
Politics after Jackson
Had many economic troubles when Jackson retired from politics in 1835. After Martin Van Buren took office in 1837, the economy suffered a severe panic. Thousands of planters and farmers lost their invested land and went bankrupt. The depression in 1837 revived the whigs. They ran William Henry Harrison for president and John Tyler for vice president. John Tyler became president and rejected their policies. Vetoed congress legislation to restore the bank of the US.
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