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Jackson’s Administration

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1 Jackson’s Administration
Chapter 10, Section 2 Jackson’s Administration

2 Three Regions Emerge Regional differences played a major role in Andrew Jackson’s presidency The way that Americans viewed Andrew Jackson’s policies were based on where they lived and the economy of the region Sectionalism

3 Three Regions Emerge North South West
Economy based on trade and manufacturing Economy based on agriculture-cotton and tobacco plantations Emerging economy Supported tariffs because they helped them compete with British factories Opposed tariffs because it made imported goods more expensive for them Favored economic policies that boosted their farming economy and encouraged settlement Opposed federal government sale of cheap land because it encourage potential laborers to move from northern factories to the west Relied on enslaved Africans for labor Favored internal improvements such as better roads and water transportation

4 Tariff of Abominations
The year before Andrew Jackson was elected president, northerners began demanding tariffs on imported woolen goods Wanted northern business protected from foreign competition (particularly Great Britain) British companies were driving American ones out of business with their inexpensive manufactured goods Southerners did not want the tariffs, because it would hurt their economy

5 Tariff of Abominations
High tariff placed on imports by Congress Signed by John Quincy Adams, though he did not support it In doing so, he knew he would not be re-elected Southerners were outraged

6 States’ Rights Debate Upon taking office, Andrew Jackson immediately faced the growing conflict over tariffs At the heart of the dispute was the question of an individual state’s right to disregard a law that had been passed by Congress

7 Nullification Crisis Andrew Jackson’s vice president, John C. Calhoun was a southerner and opposed to the Tariff of Abominations Economic depression as a result of the tariff had severely damaged the economy of his home state, South Carolina His strong opposition to the tariff is an example of Sectionalism

8 Nullification Crisis In response to the tariff, John C. Calhoun drafted the South Carolina Exposition and Protest Stated that Congress should not favor one state or region over another Calhoun used this work to advance the States’ Rights Doctrine Argued that because states had formed the national government, state power should be greater that federal power Stated that states had the right to nullify (reject) any federal law they judged to be unconstitutional

9 Nullification Crisis John C. Calhoun’s theories were very controversial Northern point of view Supported the tariff because it increased their economy Believed that American people, not states, made up the Union Southern point of view Intense hatred for the tariff because it damaged their economy Supported Calhoun’s theories Nullification Crisis Deepening conflict between supporters and opponents of nullification

10 Nullification Crisis Even though John C. Calhoun did not put his name on Exposition and Protest, he resigned from the vice presidency Elected to the Senate, where he continued arguments in favor of nullification Replaced by Martin Van Buren when Jackson was re-elected

11 The Hayne-Webster Debate
Issue of states’ rights began early in our nation’s history Viewpoints strongly influenced by sectionalism For example, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison supported individual state’s power to disagree with the federal government Both Jefferson and Madison were southerners John C. Calhoun’s theory went a step further than his predecessors Believed that individual states had the power to declare laws passed by the federal government unconstitutional, thus putting the power of the Supreme Court into question

12 The Hayne-Webster Debate
The issue of nullification of the Tariff of Abominations was intensely debated in the Senate in 1830 Robert C. Hayne Southerner from South Carolina Defended states’ rights Argued that nullification gave states a way to lawfully protest federal legislation Daniel Webster Northerner from Massachusetts Argued that the United States was one nation Believed that the welfare of the nation should override that of individual states

13 Jackson Responds Andrew Jackson was deeply opposed to nullification but also concerned about the economy of the southern states Urged Congress to pass another tariff lowering the previous rate South Carolina Felt the slight change was inadequate Decided to test the doctrine of states’ rights by passing the Nullification Act Declared both tariffs null and void Threatened secession State legislature voted to form their own army

14 Jackson Responds An enraged President Andrew Jackson sternly condemned nullification Declared he would enforce the law in South Carolina Force Bill Passed by Congress at the urging of President Andrew Jackson Approving the use of the army if necessary No other state chose to support South Carolina

15 Jackson Responds Compromise
Proposed by Henry Clay of Kentucky Gradual lowering of tariffs As President Andrew Jackson’s intention to utilize military force against South Carolina became clear, Congress and South Carolina quickly approved the compromise Despite the compromise, neither side changed their mind about states’ rights Argument continued for years, ending in what became known as The Civil War

16 Jackson Attacks the Bank
President Andrew Jackson did not always support greater federal power Opposed the Second Bank of the United States Second Bank of the United States Granted a 20 year charter by Congress Given exclusive power to act as the federal government’s financial agent Held federal deposits Made transfers of federal funds between states Dealt with any payments or receipts involving the federal government Issued bank notes (paper money) Operations supervised by Congress and the president

17 Jackson Attacks the Bank
Southern states opposed to the bank Believed the bank only helped wealthy, northern business owners Sectionalism at work Jackson questioned the legality of the bank Believed it was an unconstitutional extension of the power of Congress and that states should have the power to control the banking system

18 Jackson Attacks the Bank
States decided to take action Maryland tried to pass a tax that would limit the Bank’s operations James McCulloch (cashier of the Bank’s branch in Maryland) refused to pay the tax McCulloch v Maryland U.S. Supreme Court case that ruled that the national bank was Constitutional Nicholas Biddle Director of the bank Pushed for a bill to renew the Bank’s charter President Andrew Jackson vowed to kill any bill renewing the Bank’s charter True to his word, Andrew Jackson vetoed the bill

19 Jackson Attacks the Bank
Congress did not get 2/3 vote to override the President’s veto President Andrew Jackson weakened the Bank’s power by moving most of its funds to state banks In many cases, state banks used the funds to offer easy credit terms to people buying land Helped the expansion of the West, but led to inflation

20 Jackson Attacks the Bank
In the summer of 1836, President Andrew Jackson tried to slow inflation by ordering Americans to use only gold and silver instead of paper money This policy was not the success Andrew Jackson hoped for Jackson did improve the national economy by lowering the national debt Jackson’s economic policies opened the door for approaching economic troubles

21 Panic of 1837 President Andrew Jackson chose not to run for re-election in 1836 Democratic party nominated Vice President Martin Van Buren Whig Party Formed in 1834 to oppose Jackson Favored the idea of a weak president and a strong congress Chose 4 candidates to run against Van Buren Van Buren won the election of 1836

22 Panic of 1837 Panic of 1837 Election of 1840
Severe economic depression Shortly after President Martin Van Buren took office Even though it was Jackson’s fault, the American people blamed President Martin Van Buren Election of 1840 Whig Party united to stand behind one candidate William Henry Harrison Military hero Won in a landslide

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