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Section 5-2 Probability and Heredity After completing this PPT the student should be able to EXPLAIN what is PROBABILITY AND HOW IT AFFECTS GENETIC CROSSES, and WHAT IS MEANT BY GENOTYPE AND PHENOTYPE.

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1. Football games start with coin tosses. Why? Because it is a fair way to determine who goes first. You have a 50/50 chance of heads or tails. 2. That 50/50 chance is called PROBABILITY. 3. Probability is the number that describes how likely that a certain event will occur.

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After completing this PPT the student should be able to EXPLAIN what is PROBABILITY AND HOW IT AFFECTS GENETIC CROSSES, and WHAT IS MEANT BY GENOTYPE AND PHENOTYPE. 4. The laws of probability predict what is likely to occur, not necessarily what will occur. 5. The outcome of one coin toss will not affect the next toss. 6. How does this apply to genetics? Mendel was the first to realize that probability rules applied to genetics.

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After completing this PPT the student should be able to EXPLAIN what is PROBABILITY AND HOW IT AFFECTS GENETIC CROSSES, and WHAT IS MEANT BY GENOTYPE AND PHENOTYPE. 7. Punnett Squares are used to help understand the probable outcome of genetic crosses. 8. In a genetic cross, the allele that each parent will pass on to its offspring is based on probability.

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After completing this PPT the student should be able to EXPLAIN what is PROBABILITY AND HOW IT AFFECTS GENETIC CROSSES, and WHAT IS MEANT BY GENOTYPE AND PHENOTYPE. 9. An organism’s Physical appearance is its Phenotype. An organism’s Genetic make-up is its Genotype. 10. In CODOMINANCE, the alleles are neither dominant nor recessive. As a result, both alleles are seen in the offspring.

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Punnett Squares After completing this PPT the student should be able to EXPLAIN what is PROBABILITY AND HOW IT AFFECTS GENETIC CROSSES, and WHAT IS MEANT BY GENOTYPE AND PHENOTYPE.

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7.2.9 Students know plant and animal cells contain many thousands of different genes and typically have two copies of every gene. The two copies (or alleles)

7.2.9 Students know plant and animal cells contain many thousands of different genes and typically have two copies of every gene. The two copies (or alleles)

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