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**Probability and Genetics pg. 656-666**

Objectives: Describe the principles of probability and how Mendel applied them to inheritance State how geneticists use Punnett squares

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**Vocabulary probability Punnett square phenotype genotype homozygous**

heterozygous codominance

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**How are punnet squares useful to geneticists? **

Questions How are punnet squares useful to geneticists? What is the difference between a genotype and a phenotype? A white cow is crossed with a red bull. The calf is neither white nor red, but roan. Explain how this happens!

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**What was the chance of Pettygrove winnng the coin toss?**

Probability-the liklihood that a particular event will occur.

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**Heads up Tails up -equally likely to occur**

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**Math terms Probability that coin will land heads up is 1 in 2**

Probability that coin will land tails up is in 2 1/2 or 50 %

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**Laws of probability is what is ‘likely’ to occur.**

Toss a coin 20 times Likely or Expect: heads up / 10 tails up Will occur: heads / 9 tails or 8 heads / 12 tails Laws of probability is what is ‘likely’ to occur.

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**? Is it more likely to land tails ?**

When you toss a coin more than once the results of one toss do not affect the results of the next toss. ? Is it more likely to land tails ?

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**-Still have a 1 in 2 or 50% chance of landing heads.**

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**Is ‘Probability’ related to ‘Genetics’ ?**

Yes! It can help predict the results of ‘Genetic Crosses’ Remember Mendel ? (the guy in a dress) T x T = T T T T t x t = t t t t T x t = T T T t /4 will be short , /4 will be Tall

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**Possible combination of alleles that parents can pass on **

Cool Tool Punnett Square-shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross. Possible combination of alleles that parents can pass on Possible combinations of alleles that offspring can inherit All by chance 4 possible combinations T t T T T 25% T t 25% t T t 25% t t 25%

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**You can predict 100 % will be Red**

AA aa

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**Organism with Bb alleles**

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**Other Genetic Terms to use**

Phenotype-physical appearance, visible traits ex: traits you can see Genotype-genetic make-up ex: traits you can’t see Homozygous-identical alleles ex: T T or t t, Not purebred Heterozygous-two different alleles ex: Tt or hybrid Phenotype Genotype Tall T T T t Short t t

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**EXCEPTION Remember Mendel only found Dominant and recessive genes**

Codominance-alleles are neither dominant or recessive no masking takes place Sooooo…….. Red Reindeer + white Reindeer =

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Pink Reindeer ! YIKES !

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Probability Quiz 1. An organisms’ genetic makeup , or allele combinations. 2. An organism’s physical appearance, or visible traits. 3. The likelihood that a particular event will occur. 4. Having two identical alleles for a trait. 5. A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross. 6. Having two different alleles for a trait. 7. A condition in which neither of two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive.

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**8. How are punnet squares useful to geneticists? **

Questions: 8. How are punnet squares useful to geneticists? 9. What is the difference between a genotype and a phenotype? 10. A white cow is crossed with a red bull. The calf is neither white nor red, but roan. Explain how this happens?

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**Answers to Probability Quiz**

1. genotype 2. phenotype 3. probability 4. homozygous 5. punnett square 6. heterozygous 7. codominance

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Answers: 8. Shows possible genetic outcomes of offspring and the probability of each outcome. 9. Phenotype is the physical appearance, Genotype is the genetic makeup. 10. Co dominance. ____/10

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