# PProbability is a number that describes how likely it is that an event will occur.

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PProbability is a number that describes how likely it is that an event will occur.

 Mathematics of Probability The laws of probability predict what is likely to occur not what will occur. Formula for finding probability

 Independence of Events Example: When you toss a coin more than once, the results of one toss do not affect the results of the next toss. Each event occurs independently.

 Each time you toss a coin, there are 2 possible ways that the coin can land-heads up or tails up. Each of these 2 events is equally likely to occur.  The more you toss the coin, the more it gets closer to the predicted probability

 Punnett Squares Punnett squares are charts that show all the possible combinations of alleles, or different forms of a gene, that can result from a genetic cross. They can also be used to predict probabilities; this is because in a genetic cross, the allele that each parent will pass on to its offspring is based on probability. example:

 Heredity is the passing of physical characteristics from parent to off spring. This is exemplified in punnett squares, which is also how it is linked to probability.

 What are phenotypes and genotypes? An organism’s Phenotype is its physical appearance, or visible traits. An organism’s Genotype is its genetic makeup, or allele combinations These 2 things are better explained in the chart up next.

 This chart shows what genotypes and phenotypes are and by doing that, it also shows the difference between the two.

WWhat is codominance? Codominance is a condition in which neither of the 2 alleles of a gene is dominant nor recessive. As a result, both alleles are expressed in the offspring, which is better recognized as a hybrid.

 This punnett square shows the two types of alleles involved with codominance. Codominant alleles, as seen here, are written as capital letters with superscripts, which are represented here with numbers.

WWe’ve learned…. what probability is and how it helps to explain genetic crosses; What genotypes and phenotypes are; and what codominance involves. Thanks for reading and learning with me!

 Coolidge-Stolz, Elizabeth; Crontike, Donald; Jenner, Jan; Jones, Linda Cronin; Lisowski, Marylin. Science Explorer: Life Science. New York: Prentice Hall, 2009, pgs 118-123  http://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-photography-family- together-on-farm-image5147297 http://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-photography-family- together-on-farm-image5147297  Paint  http://staff.jccc.net/pdecell/transgenetics/monohybrid1.html http://staff.jccc.net/pdecell/transgenetics/monohybrid1.html  theoildrum.com  thetweensnews.com  http://www.world-builders.org/lessons/less/les4/casino/cas1ck.html http://www.world-builders.org/lessons/less/les4/casino/cas1ck.html

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