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PProbability is a number that describes how likely it is that an event will occur.

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Presentation on theme: "PProbability is a number that describes how likely it is that an event will occur."— Presentation transcript:

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3 PProbability is a number that describes how likely it is that an event will occur.

4  Mathematics of Probability The laws of probability predict what is likely to occur not what will occur. Formula for finding probability

5  Independence of Events Example: When you toss a coin more than once, the results of one toss do not affect the results of the next toss. Each event occurs independently.

6  Each time you toss a coin, there are 2 possible ways that the coin can land-heads up or tails up. Each of these 2 events is equally likely to occur.  The more you toss the coin, the more it gets closer to the predicted probability

7  Punnett Squares Punnett squares are charts that show all the possible combinations of alleles, or different forms of a gene, that can result from a genetic cross. They can also be used to predict probabilities; this is because in a genetic cross, the allele that each parent will pass on to its offspring is based on probability. example:

8  Heredity is the passing of physical characteristics from parent to off spring. This is exemplified in punnett squares, which is also how it is linked to probability.

9  What are phenotypes and genotypes? An organism’s Phenotype is its physical appearance, or visible traits. An organism’s Genotype is its genetic makeup, or allele combinations These 2 things are better explained in the chart up next.

10  This chart shows what genotypes and phenotypes are and by doing that, it also shows the difference between the two.

11 WWhat is codominance? Codominance is a condition in which neither of the 2 alleles of a gene is dominant nor recessive. As a result, both alleles are expressed in the offspring, which is better recognized as a hybrid.

12  This punnett square shows the two types of alleles involved with codominance. Codominant alleles, as seen here, are written as capital letters with superscripts, which are represented here with numbers.

13 WWe’ve learned…. what probability is and how it helps to explain genetic crosses; What genotypes and phenotypes are; and what codominance involves. Thanks for reading and learning with me!

14  Coolidge-Stolz, Elizabeth; Crontike, Donald; Jenner, Jan; Jones, Linda Cronin; Lisowski, Marylin. Science Explorer: Life Science. New York: Prentice Hall, 2009, pgs  together-on-farm-image together-on-farm-image  Paint   theoildrum.com  thetweensnews.com 


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