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**Why do we look similar to but different than our biological siblings?**

Mendelian Genetics Why do we look similar to but different than our biological siblings?

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**Possible Results of Crosses**

OR OR How is this possible? Can we accurately predict the outcome of crosses?

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Heredity Vocabulary Homozygous = when an organism has two identical alleles for a particular gene Ex: GG (both dominant) or gg (both recessive) Heterozygous = when an organism has different alleles for the same gene Ex: Gg (one dominant and one recessive)

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Heredity Vocabulary Genotype = genetic makeup (the combination alleles) Phenotypes = physical traits For each plant below, list all possible phenotypes and genotypes: Phenotypes: Yellow Green Genotypes: gg GG or Gg

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Probability Mendel kept getting consistent results for particular crosses 64 green 48 green and 16 yellow

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Probability Principles of probability can be used to predict the outcomes of genetic crosses Probability= likelihood that a particular event will occur What is the probability of the coin landing heads up?

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**Using Segregation to Predict Outcomes**

G = green allele (dominant) g = yellow allele (recessive) Gg Gg Meiosis occurs G g G g Sex cells are produced with one allele each

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**Using Segregation to Predict Outcomes**

Fertilization occurs There are four possible outcomes: GG (green leaves) Gg (green leaves) gg (yellow leaves) GG Gg Gg gg

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**Using Segregation to Predict Outcomes**

What is the probability that the offspring will have yellow leaves? What is the probability that the offspring will have green leaves? gg GG, Gg, Gg

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Punnett Squares A simple diagram used to predict the outcomes of a genetic cross How to make a Punnett Square: Write the genotypes of the parents Determine the alleles of all possible gametes that each parent could produce Draw a table with enough squares for each gamete of each parent Fill the table by combining the gametes’ genotypes Determine the genotype and phenotype of the offspring.

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