3INTESTINAL PROTOZOANumerous protozoa inhabit the gastro-intestinal tract of humans .Entamoeba histolytica can become a highly virulent and invasive organism that causes a potentially lethal systemic disease.Giardia lamblia can cause severe acute diarrhea which may lead to a chronic diarrhea and nutritional disorders
4INTESTINAL PROTOZOAIntestinal protozoa are transmitted by the fecal-oral route .exhibit similar life cycles consisting of a cyst stage and a trophozoite stage
21Entamoeba histolytica trophozoite Characteristic features :a finger-likepseudopodium (psd) .the ectoplasm (ecto).cytoplasm has a granularappearance the endoplasm (endo).a glycogen vacuole (vac).Nuclear (Nu).chromatin and a centrally locatedkaryosome (ka).
29MalariaMalaria is the 5th cause of death from infectious diseases worldwide (after respiratory infections, HIV/AIDS, diarrheal diseases, and tuberculosis) in low-income countries.Malaria is the 2nd leading cause of death from infectious diseases in Africa, after HIV/AIDS.
30MalariaDisease: Malaria Distribution: Malaria today is usually restricted to tropical and subtropical areas
35P. Vivax ring stage Diagnostic Points: Red cells containing parasites are usually enlarged.Schuffner's dots are frequently present in the red cells as shown above.The mature ring forms tend to be large and coarse.Developing forms are frequently present.
41P. falciparum ring stage Diagnostic Points:Red Cells are not enlarged.Rings appear fine and delicate and there may be several in one cell.Some rings may have two chromatin dots.Presence of marginal or applique forms.No Trophosoite and schizont.
43P. falciparum gametocyte stage Gametocytes of P. falciparum. Figs : Macrogametocytes (female); Figs : Microgametocytes (male).Illustrations from: Coatney GR, Collins WE, Warren M, Contacos PG. The Primate Malarias. Bethesda: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare; 1971.
44P. falciparum gametocyte stage crescent- or sausage-shaped.1.5 times the diameter of an RBC in length.remnants of the host RBC can be seen; this is often referred to as Laveran's bib.
45P. falciparum gametocyte stage Gametocyte of P. falciparum in a thin blood smear, showing Laveran's bib.