4EpilepsyEpilepsy is a brain disease involving abnormal neuron activity in the brainAbnormal activity triggers seizuresIncludes many diseases that affect the brain in this way, not just onePerson is classified as epileptic after just 2 epileptic seizures
5Electroencephalogram (EEG) Method of recording electrical activity of the brain.Electrical Activity produced by firing neurons in the brain.First EEG in 1912Recorded by Vladimir Vladimirovich Pravdich-Neminsky on a dogMain clinical application: Detecting seizures and epilepsyAlso has applications in entertainment
8Ictal vs. Inter-IctalIctal - the actual event; originates from the Latin ictus, meaning a blow or a strokeInter-Ictal- the time between epileptic eventsWhich is best?
9Current Prediction Methods Using raw EEG data, the following algorithms are generally utilized:Fuzzy LogicArtificial Neural Networks (ANNs)Functional Neural Networks (FNNs)Probability Neural Networks (PNNs)Support Vector Machines (SVM)
11PREVENTION Common methods to prevent epilepsy seizures Preventing a seizure with the use of Biosensors
12PREVENTION Use of medications There are a few common methods believed to help prevent epilepsy seizuresUse of medicationsMedications does not affect all epilepsy patientsThey do not stop all attacks from occurringEpilepsy seizures cannot be 100% prevented by medicationIdentify an oncoming seizure attack by watching for behaviors, environments, or physical and emotional signs that lead to attacksIf an individual is known to have a smelling sensation that occurs right before a seizure, it may be prevented by sniffing a strong odor such as garlic or rosesRubbing muscles that are twitching during an attack may also halt the seizure
13PREVENTION VNS – Vagus Nerve Stimulation (passes thru neck to brain) Designed to prevent seizures by sending regular, mild pulses of electrical energy to the brain via the vagus nervePulses supplied by a device similar to a pacemakerWorks for 30 seconds of stimulation followed by 5 minutes of no stimulationHolding magnetic near devices activates it outside of its programmed intervalStimulation ParametersStimulation amplitude, frequency, pulse widthRelieves side effects (pain) and controls seizure
14PREVENTION Molecular Imaging Biosensor Identifies excess amounts of neurotransmitter glutamate build up in brain tissueExcess levels thought to be produced by dysfunctional “glutamate-glutamine shuttle”Biological sensors being developed to detect glutamate levels from shuttle processUsing FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) imaging and electrical signals to detect evidence of alterationsIf technology is feasible and shows that epileptic seizures occur from this imbalance, this will be a potential new therapeutic way to control epilepsy
16Types of Products Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) Seizure Detection while sleepingElectrodermal Activity SensorAudio sensors
17Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) “Pacemaker for the Brain”Mixed reviews from patients receiving the productMore risk with an in body procedureHas removed seizures for some, but stopped hearts in others!!
18Available Prevention/Detection Products Detects shaking movements typical of seizures while sleepingPlaced on bed underneath sleeper, triggers alarm
19Available Prevention/Detection Products Bed Sensor with Microphone to detect audible sounds sometimes associated with seizures
20Available Prevention/Detection Products Electrodermal Activity Sensor measures skin conductanceElectrodes sense change when seizure occurs