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Technology Interactions ‹ Chapter Title Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill A Division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Technology Interactions Bioengineering.

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Presentation on theme: "Technology Interactions ‹ Chapter Title Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill A Division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Technology Interactions Bioengineering."— Presentation transcript:

1 Technology Interactions ‹ Chapter Title Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill A Division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Technology Interactions Bioengineering is the use of engineering to solve problems in biology, medicine, human behavior, health, and the environment.

2 Technology InteractionsChapter 18 Bioengineering Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill A Division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. What Do Bioengineers Do? design replacements for body parts design devices and machines to diagnosis and treat disease and to help rehabilitate patients with impairments develop biological systems for use in cleaning up the environment design equipment and devices that help people work more efficiently and safely

3 Technology InteractionsChapter 18 Bioengineering Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill A Division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Prostheses Prostheses are replacement or enhancement body parts for people with disabilities. Biomechanics is the study of the natural movements of the body. Designers use knowledge of biomechanics to design prostheses that move like natural limbs.

4 Technology InteractionsChapter 18 Bioengineering Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill A Division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Myoelectric Devices A myoelectric signal is an electrical pulse sent by the brain through the nerve endings to the muscles. This causes the muscles to flex. Prosthetic devices have been designed that pick up myoelectric signals and use them to control a limb.

5 Technology InteractionsChapter 18 Bioengineering Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill A Division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Sensory Systems Temperature sensors placed in a prosthetic device respond to heat and cold. The sensors signal a computer within the device, which then sends a signal through wires to the skin to relay the sensation of heat or cold.

6 Technology InteractionsChapter 18 Bioengineering Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill A Division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Prosthetic Implants Prosthetic implants are placed inside the body. Materials used for implants must be acceptable to the body’s immune system. ♦ Titanium, a strong, lightweight metal, is used for prosthetic hip and knee joints. ♦ Plastics such as woven acrylic are used to make flexible artificial veins.

7 Technology InteractionsChapter 18 Bioengineering Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill A Division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Diagnosis Diagnosis is the process of examining a patient and studying symptoms to find out what illness or condition the patient has. Bioengineers have designed medical equipment that can measure, monitor, and show images of the body’s natural functions as well as illnesses and diseases.

8 Technology InteractionsChapter 18 Bioengineering Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill A Division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Measuring Human Electrical Signals An electroencephalograph (EEG) records the electrical activity of the brain. An electrocardiograph (ECG or EKG) records the electrical currents of the heart.

9 Technology InteractionsChapter 18 Bioengineering Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill A Division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Imaging the Human Body Medical imaging is the process of taking pictures of the inside of the human body. Various technologies are used. ♦ X rays ♦ Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ♦ Computerized tomography (CT) ♦ Ultrasound

10 Technology InteractionsChapter 18 Bioengineering Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill A Division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. X Rays X rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation. X-ray machines send X rays through the body and onto film that is sensitive to X rays. X rays can pierce deep into materials like bone, tissue, fat, and muscle. Each material absorbs X rays differently and produces a different image on the film.

11 Technology InteractionsChapter 18 Bioengineering Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill A Division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses magnetic energy, radio waves, and computers. MRI makes 3D images of areas as small as one millimeter.

12 Technology InteractionsChapter 18 Bioengineering Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill A Division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Computerized Tomography Computerized tomography (CT) uses a rotating X-ray machine, rather than magnetic fields, to create an image on the computer. CT is also called computerized axial tomography, or CAT.

13 Technology InteractionsChapter 18 Bioengineering Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill A Division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves that create echoes when they bounce off body structures. A computer interprets the echoes and generates an image.

14 Technology InteractionsChapter 18 Bioengineering Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill A Division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Treatment Machines designed by bioengineers are used to monitor and record body functions and even help perform surgery. For example, LASIK surgery corrects people’s vision by reshaping the cornea of the eye using a computer-controlled laser.

15 Technology InteractionsChapter 18 Bioengineering Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill A Division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Ergonomics Ergonomics is the study and design of equipment and devices that fit the human body, its movement, and its thinking patterns. Ergonomics is also called human factors engineering. Human factors engineers design workstations and work environments that help people work more efficiently.

16 Technology InteractionsChapter 18 Bioengineering Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill A Division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Bioprocessing Bioprocessing is bioengineering technology that uses living microorganisms or parts of organisms to change materials from one form to another. Bioprocessing is used to help clean the environment with microorganisms, such as algae in ponds and acid-producing bacteria in sewage treatment.


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