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Sensation and Perception Unit 4. The Basics of Sensation -Sensation -Behavior often begins with sensory input -Process by which we receive, transform,

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Presentation on theme: "Sensation and Perception Unit 4. The Basics of Sensation -Sensation -Behavior often begins with sensory input -Process by which we receive, transform,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Sensation and Perception Unit 4

2 The Basics of Sensation -Sensation -Behavior often begins with sensory input -Process by which we receive, transform, and process stimuli presented to sensory organs -Sensory receptors – in sensory organs -Detect stimuli from the outside world -Very sensitive to certain types of stimuli -Form of light, sound, odors -Psychophysics – how we experience such stimuli

3 The Basics of Sensation -Absolute and Difference Thresholds -Absolute threshold -Smallest amount of stimulus reliably detected -Variation in sensitivity among individuals - Difference threshold: amount to determine difference of level of same stimulus -Just-noticeable difference (JND) -Weber’s law -Must change stimulus by a constant proportion for change to be detected

4 What do You See?

5 The Eye The Image The Parts -The Eye: The Visionary Sensory Organ -Contains the sensory receptors to detect light -Cornea – transparent covering on the surface of the eye -Iris – Muscle surrounding pupil; adjust to permit entry of light – adjustment is a reflex -Pupil – size of opening is controlled by iris

6 The Eye The Image The Parts -The Eye: The Visionary Sensory Organ -Lens – changes shape to adjust to distance of object (accommodation) -Retina – receives the image created by light striking it; contains photoreceptors – rods and cones

7 The Eye The Image The Parts Bipolar cells – interconnection cells Ganglion cells – each projection axon is one nerve fiber Optic nerve -Large bundle of ganglion nerve fibers -Transmits visual information to the brain -Creates blind spot Fovea -Contains only cones -Site for sharpest vision

8 Vision Options Color Vision: Sensing Color -Color Receptors (cones) transmit different messages to the brain -Hermann von Helmholtz – trichromatic theory -Three types of color receptors – red, green, and blue-violet -Dichromatic: only see two of the three color receptors

9 Vision Options Color Vision: Sensing Color -Monochromatic: only see in shades of grey

10 The Ear

11 -Sound: Sensing Waves of Vibrations -Energy that travels in waves (vibrations) -Must have a medium in order to exist -Characteristics -Amplitude (loudness) – the height of the wave -Frequency – number of complete waves, or cycles per second -Travels much more slowly than light -Measured in decibels (dB), and indication of perceived loudness

12 The Ear -The Ear: A Sound machine -Sound waves are captured and converted to neural form -Ear components -Eardrum – membrane that vibrates in response to sound waves -Ossicles – three tiny bones in middle ear -Hammer (malleus) -Anvil (incus) -Stirrup (stapes) -Perception of pitch is related to wave frequency

13 The Ear -Cochlea – fluid filled snail-shaped bony tube -Basilar membrane – vibrates within the cochlea -Organ of Corti – gelatinous structure lined with hairs cells -Hair cells – auditory receptors -Auditory nerve – transmits auditory messages to brain -Perception of pitch is related to wave frequency

14 -Frequency theory -Perceived frequency depends on how often the auditory nerve fires -Volley principle - If neurons work together and alternate their firing, they can exceed the limitations of 1,000 firing per second Theories & Principles -Place Theory -Idea the each frequency vibrates at a particular spot on the basilar membrane

15 -Taste: The Flavorful Sense -Four basic tastes: sweet, sour, salty and bitter -Flavors are a result of combinations of tastes -Taste cell – taste receptors -Taste buds – pores or opening on tongue -Taste sensitivity partly genetic -Olfaction: What Your Nose Knows -Chemicals in the air that the nose can respond to -Lock-and-key fitting of molecules into odor receptors -Olfactory nerve – transmits odor information to brain -Olfactory bulb – brain destination; odor information does not travel through thalamus -Pheromones – chemical substances that play a role in behavior

16 The Sense of Touch Sensed by the nerves just below the skin – Pressure – Pain – Temperature

17 The Sense of Touch

18 -The Kinesthetic and Vestibular Senses: Of Grace and Balance -Kinesthetic sense tells us bout body position and body movement -Vestibular sense monitors body position in space -Aids in keeping one’s balance -Informs whether we are moving quickly or slowly -In ear’s semicircular canals – movement of fluid relates body position -Dizziness: semicircular canal fluid still moving though we have stopped

19 Perception -Perception: The Brain organizes and interprets sensations -Attention: did you Notice that? -Attention: the first step in perception -Selective attention: limit attention to certain stimuli -Habituation: results from exposure to a constant stimulus

20 -Perceptual Constancies -Shape constancy – shape seen as the same across various perspectives -Size constancy – size perceived as same regardless of distance from perceiver -Color constancy – color perceived the same despite changes in lighting -Brightness constancy – brightness seen as the same though illumination may change -Cues to Depth Perception -Binocular cues – need both eyes -Retinal disparity – slightly differing image, what each eyes

21 What do You See? Continuity We tend to perceive figures or objects as belonging together if they appear to form a continuous pattern Closure (Connectedness) We perceive figures with gaps in them to be complete Similarity We perceive figures which look alike as being grouped together Proximity We perceive things close together as being in sets

22 What do You See?

23 Top-Down Vs. Bottom-UP Top-Down processing looks first at the whole picture and then breaks it apart into pieces (deductive reasoning)

24 Top-Down Vs. Bottom-UP Bottom-Up looks first at the pieces and then creates the big picture (inductive reasoning) Pumpkin Cranberries Stuffing Mashed Potatoes Turkey Green Beans Corn

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