Frequency of Sound Waves frequency - the number of the waves gives us the pitch if the sound.
Amplitude of Sound Waves amplitude - the height of the wave of the sound.
Absolute Threshold Absolute Threshold = zero decibels 10 decibels = 10X increase in sound intensity Example: – A 30 decibel sound is _____ times louder than a 10 decibel sound – A 40 decibel sound is _____ times louder than a 10 decibel sound
Transduction Overview – Eardrum, Hammer, Anvil, Stirrup, Oval Window, Cochlea, Auditory Nerve, Temporal Lobe, Auditory Cortex 1.Outer Ear Ear Drum – tight membrane that vibrates with sound waves. Transmits sound to the bones of the middle ear. 2. Middle Ear hammer, anvil, stirrup to cochlea’s oval window 3. Inner Ear Cochlea – coiled fluid filled tube where transduction occurs – Oval window’s vibrations cause basilar membrane’s hair cells to turn vibrations into neural impulses 4. Auditory Nerve – send neural messages via the thalamus to the auditory cortex in the brain. 5. Thalamus to Temporal lobes Auditory cortex It is all about the vibrations!!!
The structure of the ear Bones of the middle ear = the hammer, anvil, stirrup which vibrate with the eardrum.
The structure of the ear Mechanical vibrations triggered by sound waves are transduced into neural impulses by _____________? _____________ do the same job for vision as __________ do for audition
Perceiving Loudness Damage to Basilar membrane’s hair cells = hearing loss (lose sensation of soft sounds) – # of activated hair cells allows us to perceive loudness – Compression – harder to hear sounds are more amplified than loud sound
Pitch Theories Place Theory and Frequency Theory
Place Theory or Herman von Helmholtz Theory Brain determines pitch by recognizing the place on the membrane that is generating the neural impulse Best explains how we sense high pitches
Frequency Theory Brain knows pitch by the frequency of the neural impulse – Frequency (speed) of sound wave matches the speed of the neural impulse. Theory limitations: Can’t explain high pitch sounds (neural impulses can only travel at 1000 impulses per sec.) Best explains how we hear low pitches Example:
Volley Principle Neural cells alternate firing in rapid succession Can achieve a combined frequency of above 1000 waves/sec
Locating Sound Sound waves strike one ear sooner and more intensely in the direction of the sound
Deafness Conduction Deafness Damage to the mechanical system that conducts vibrations in the middle ear (hammer, anvil, stirrup). You can replace the bones or get a hearing aid to help. Example: Nerve (sensorineural) Deafness The hair cells on the basilar membrain in the cochlea get damaged. Loud noises can cause this type of deafness. NO WAY to replace the hairs. Cochlea implant - converts sound waves to into electrical signals. Example:
Touch Receptors located in our skin. Types of touch – Pressure* – Warmth – Cold – Pain Sensation of hot
Kinesthetic Sense Tells us where our individual body parts are. Receptors located in our joints, tendons, bones and ears Example: Without the kinesthetic sense you could not touch the button to make copies of your buttocks.
Vestibular Sense Enables you to sense your body position and balance Located in our semicircular canals in our ears. Example:
Pain Biological Influences – Noiceptors – sensory receptors that detect hurtful temperatures, pressure or chemicals – Gate-control theory* – Endorphins – Phantom limb sensations – Tinnitus Psychological influences – Distraction – Memory of Pain – peak pain, end pain Socio Cultural Influences – More pain when others experience pain – Mirror neurons that empathize with others pain
Gate Control Theory Gate Control Theory – spinal cord contains a “gate” that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass through to the brain Example:
Taste Sweet, sour, salty and bitter –Umami Taste buds –Chemical sense Age and taste
Taste Bumps on our tongue are called papillae. Taste buds are located on the papillae 200+ each containing a pore. Pore – 50-100 taste receptor cells that sense food molecules
Sensory Interaction Sensory interaction – some senses influence others Examples: Jello in the shape of a brain looks so unappetizing, it tastes terrible too McGurk Effect – seeing mouth movements for ga, but hearing ha, we may perceive da (saying one syllable, while hearing another, you perceive a third)
Smell Olfaction – Chemical sense – Olfactory receptors - odor molecules fit into receptors like a lock and key located in the olfactory bulb – Olfactory bulb – transmits smell from the nose to the brain – Olfactory nerve – sends neural messages to from the olfactory bulb directly to the olfactory cortex in the brain bypassing the thalamus – Olfactory cortex – receives information from the olfactory bulb Conscious awareness of odors Identification of odors – Hotline between olfactory cortex and limbic system (memory and emotion)