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© West Educational Publishing Sensation and Perception C HAPTER 4 S ensation and perception form our world. Sensation is processed by physical receptors; perception is a psychological function of interpretation. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Sensory Processes Sensation Perception Sensation is the process of receiving information from the environment through remarkable receptors in the human body. Perception is the psychological process of organizing sensory information to make it meaningful. These two processes are intermixed. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing The body receives information through the five main senses. The Five Human Senses Hearing VisionTaste Smell Touch EXIT
© West Educational Publishing An absolute threshold is the minimal amount of sensory stimulation needed for a sensation to occur. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Vision is the dominant sense. Iris Pupil Cornea Retina Blind Spot Click on the arrows for more information. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing The Iris The iris is a muscle that opens and closes in order to control the amount of light entering the eye. Iris Pupil Cornea Retina Blind spot Click for more information. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing The Cornea The cornea is the outer covering of the eye. Cornea IrisPupil Cornea Retina Blind spot Click for more information. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing The Pupil The pupil is the opening in the eye. Pupil IrisPupil Cornea Retina Blind spot Click for more information. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing The Retina The retina is the back of the eye that has receptors for light. Retina IrisPupil Cornea Retina Blind spot Click for more information. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing The Blind Spot The blind spot is where the optic nerve exits and there are no receptors for light waves. Blind Spot IrisPupil Cornea Retina Blind spot Click for more information. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Close your left eye and stare at the dot and move either forward or backward until the cube disappears. Blind Spot Demonstration EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Rods Rods are visual receptors that “see” only black and white and are most sensitive in low light. Cones Cones are visual receptors that receive color and are most sensitive in daylight. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing How many? Where concentrated? Sensitive to light? Sensitive to color? Rods 120-125 million Very sensitive No Periphery of retina Cones 7-8 million Center of retina Low sensitivity Yes Rods and Cones EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Color Vision Some people cannot tell the difference between certain colors. The most common form is the inability to see the colors of red or green. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Cochlea This structure is a snail-shaped part of the ear that has tiny hairs and fluid that vibrate with incoming sound. Eardrum This is a piece of skin stretched over the entrance to the ear and vibrates to sound. The Structure of the Ear Cochlea Eardrum EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Sound Audition Sound is energy; it travels in waves like light, but much slower. Characteristics Pitch: how high or low a sound is Timbre: complexity of tone Intensity: loudness (measured in decibels) EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Cutaneous Senses (Touch) There are 3 types of receptors: for pressure for temperature for injury or poison EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Smell (Olfaction) The sense of smell performs a critical role in providing information about the food we eat. It is very closely related to the sense of taste. Animals also use smell (chemicals called pheromones) to communicate sexual interest. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Taste Taste receptors on the tongue are called taste buds. There are four types of taste receptors: salty, sweet, sour, and bitter. These receptors combine sensations to create subtle flavors. Salty Sweet Sour Bitter EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Perception Size constancy: ability to remember the size of an object no matter where it is located Color constancy: ability to perceive an object as the same color regardless of the environment Shape constancy: ability to perceive an object as having the same shape regardless of the angle Space constancy: ability to judge distance by perceiving either self or object movement Perceptual constancies use memory to maintain order in the world. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Perceptual Organization Gestalt: making incomplete organization whole (they way something should be rather than how it actually is) Similarity: grouping like things together Proximity: grouping things together that are near each other Closure: filling in the missing details EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Closure Proximity Similarity Perceptual Organization EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Perceptual Illusions Franz Müller-Lyer designed this illusion in 1889. Illusions are misperceptions. They illustrate how we organize objects into meaningful perceptions. Which line is longer? EXIT
© West Educational Publishing The Vertical-Horizontal Illusion Are the two lines the same length? EXIT
© West Educational Publishing In the figure- ground illusion, the figure is in the front while the ground is in the back. Do you see the faces facing one another or do you see the vase? Figure-Ground Illusion EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Click the forward arrow to move the cylinder on the right forward to the middle cylinder. Which cylinder is largest? EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Which cylinder is largest? Now click the forward arrow to move the cylinder forward to the front cylinder. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Which cylinder is largest? EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Summary of Main Topics Covered Sensory Processes Perception Vision Hearing Touch Smell Taste EXIT
Sensation and Perception UNIT 4 S ensation and perception form our world. Sensation is processed by physical receptors; perception is a psychological function.
Chapter 4. Absolute Threshold – level of sensory stimulation necessary for sensation to occur ◦ We do not pay attention to small sounds or background.
Sensation Mrs. Craig. Vision--Parts of the Eye 4 Cornea 4 Iris 4 Lens 4 Pupil 4 Retina 4 Fovea 4 Blind Spot.
The Senses. Sensory Receptors Sensory receptors = neurons that react directly to stimuli from the environment. – Light, sound, motion, chemicals, pressure.
THE SENSES PGS Chapter 35 Section 4. Objectives _______________ the five types of sensory receptors ______________ the five sense organs Name.
The Senses EQ: How does our brain receive and interpret sensory information?
Vision Use the following ppt. to take notes on the structure of the eye. Before you tape the eye diagram into notes – take notes on wavelengths (Obj.7)
The Senses (3) Anatomy and Physiology. The Senses The body contains millions of neurons that react directly to stimuli from the environment, including.
Senses II. Science of Taste Article Read the article “A Natural History of the Senses” and complete questions: Responses and Analysis #1 and #2 Personal.
© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Sensation and Perception Chapter 3.
Lesson Overview Lesson Overview The Senses Lesson Overview 31.4 The Senses.
Vision Hearing Other Senses Perception 1 Perception 2.
Chapter 3 Sensation and Perception McGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Sensation and Perception. The Major Senses There are 6 major senses –vision –hearing –touch –taste –pain –smell The list can be extended with balance,
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- SENSATION REFERS TO THE PROCESS OF SENSING OUR ENVIRONMENT THROUGH TOUCH, TASTE, SIGHT, SOUND, AND SMELL. THIS INFORMATION IS SENT TO OUR BRAINS IN RAW.
SENSATION AND PERCEPTION KEY POINTS Distinguish between sensation and perception Psychophysics: absolute threshold and difference threshold Identify.
Lesson 19 What are sense organs?. The moment you were born, you started to learn. Every instant provided you with new experiences. You tasted, smelled,
Sensation and Perception. Sensation : stimulation of sense organs Perception : selection, organization, and interpretation of sensory input Five senses:
Sensation & Perception Chapter 5. Sensation & Perception The “five” senses: – sight, hearing taste, smell, touch, vestibular & kinesthetic Sensory organs.
Slide 1 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 35–4 The Senses.
End Show Slide 1 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology.
2 How do we construct our representations of the external world? To represent the world, we must detect physical energy (a stimulus) from the environment.
Unit 5: Sensation & Perception Vision and Hearing.
Sense Organs. 1. With reference to the example of African snail, animals are responsive to _________. (1) and (2) (2) and (3) (1), (2) and (3) (1), (2),
BRS 214 Introduction to Psychology Sensation & Perception Ms. Dawn Stewart BSC, MPA, PHD.
SENSATION. SENSATION DEFINED Sensation is the process by which sensory systems (eyes, ears, and other sensory organs) and the nervous system receive stimuli.
Chapter 24 Regulation Sec Question? Look around you. What do you see? What sounds can you hear? Do you smell any odors? – Information about your.
The Senses Chapter Sensory Receptors Sensory receptors react to specific stimuli –Stimuli include light, sound, motion, chemicals, pressure, and.
Sensation and Perception Chapter 3. Sensation Sensation - the activation of receptors in the various sense organs. Sensory receptors - specialized forms.
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 5: Sensation Module 5 Sensation.
What Is Sensation? The process by which our sensory systems and nervous system receive stimuli from our environment.
To represent the world, we must detect physical energy (a stimulus) from the environment and convert it into neural signals. This is a process called__________________.
The process by which our sensory systems receive stimuli from our environment.
Chapter 8 Sensation and Perception Psychology. Sensation Sensation is created by colors sounds tastes smells ect.. Perception is the organization.
SENSATION The basics, vision, and hearing, and the other senses.
Sensation and Perception. Sensation The process by which sensory systems (eyes, ears, and other sensory organs) and the nervous system receive stimuli.
What’s in the bag? Blind fold students or (take away other senses) and have them identify different objects. Explain that senses help us receive information.
Sensation and Perception Chapter 4. Sensation - the stimulation of sensory receptors and the transmission of sensory information to the central nervous.
Senses and Perception Chapter 4 Questions. Senses and Perception All incoming sensation is interpreted by the brain Without much conscious effort, we.
Unit 11 Unit 11 Summary check-point Unit 11 Unit 11 Summary check-point.
Sensation- Day 2 Review Questions: 1.Define sensation and perception, and discriminate between the two. 2.What is the retina, and what happens there? 3.Describe.
Vocab Theories & Laws Anatomical Structures Other Senses Perceptual Organization $100 $500 $400 $300 $200.
1 Chapter 13 Senses. 2 Outline Types of Sensory Receptors Sense of Taste Sense of Smell Sense of Vision – Focusing – Integration of Visual Signals – Abnormalities.
Sensation and Perception Unit 4. The Basics of Sensation -Sensation -Behavior often begins with sensory input -Process by which we receive, transform,
Domain 2 Part 3 Chapter 8 Sensation. Sensation v. Perception Sensation: activation of our senses (eyes, ears, etc.) Perception: the process of understanding.
HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 1 Chapter 4 Question:In what ways do sensation and perception contribute to an understanding.
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