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© West Educational Publishing Sensation and Perception C HAPTER 4 S ensation and perception form our world. Sensation is processed by physical receptors;

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Presentation on theme: "© West Educational Publishing Sensation and Perception C HAPTER 4 S ensation and perception form our world. Sensation is processed by physical receptors;"— Presentation transcript:

1 © West Educational Publishing Sensation and Perception C HAPTER 4 S ensation and perception form our world. Sensation is processed by physical receptors; perception is a psychological function of interpretation. EXIT

2 © West Educational Publishing Sensory Processes Sensation Perception Sensation is the process of receiving information from the environment through remarkable receptors in the human body. Perception is the psychological process of organizing sensory information to make it meaningful. These two processes are intermixed. EXIT

3 © West Educational Publishing The body receives information through the five main senses. The Five Human Senses Hearing VisionTaste Smell Touch EXIT

4 © West Educational Publishing An absolute threshold is the minimal amount of sensory stimulation needed for a sensation to occur. EXIT

5 © West Educational Publishing Vision is the dominant sense. Iris Pupil Cornea Retina Blind Spot Click on the arrows for more information. EXIT

6 © West Educational Publishing The Iris The iris is a muscle that opens and closes in order to control the amount of light entering the eye. Iris Pupil Cornea Retina Blind spot Click for more information. EXIT

7 © West Educational Publishing The Cornea The cornea is the outer covering of the eye. Cornea IrisPupil Cornea Retina Blind spot Click for more information. EXIT

8 © West Educational Publishing The Pupil The pupil is the opening in the eye. Pupil IrisPupil Cornea Retina Blind spot Click for more information. EXIT

9 © West Educational Publishing The Retina The retina is the back of the eye that has receptors for light. Retina IrisPupil Cornea Retina Blind spot Click for more information. EXIT

10 © West Educational Publishing The Blind Spot The blind spot is where the optic nerve exits and there are no receptors for light waves. Blind Spot IrisPupil Cornea Retina Blind spot Click for more information. EXIT

11 © West Educational Publishing Close your left eye and stare at the dot and move either forward or backward until the cube disappears. Blind Spot Demonstration EXIT

12 © West Educational Publishing Rods Rods are visual receptors that “see” only black and white and are most sensitive in low light. Cones Cones are visual receptors that receive color and are most sensitive in daylight. EXIT

13 © West Educational Publishing How many? Where concentrated? Sensitive to light? Sensitive to color? Rods 120-125 million Very sensitive No Periphery of retina Cones 7-8 million Center of retina Low sensitivity Yes Rods and Cones EXIT

14 © West Educational Publishing Color Vision Some people cannot tell the difference between certain colors. The most common form is the inability to see the colors of red or green. EXIT

15 © West Educational Publishing Cochlea This structure is a snail-shaped part of the ear that has tiny hairs and fluid that vibrate with incoming sound. Eardrum This is a piece of skin stretched over the entrance to the ear and vibrates to sound. The Structure of the Ear Cochlea Eardrum EXIT

16 © West Educational Publishing Sound Audition Sound is energy; it travels in waves like light, but much slower. Characteristics Pitch: how high or low a sound is Timbre: complexity of tone Intensity: loudness (measured in decibels) EXIT

17 © West Educational Publishing Cutaneous Senses (Touch) There are 3 types of receptors: for pressure for temperature for injury or poison EXIT

18 © West Educational Publishing Smell (Olfaction) The sense of smell performs a critical role in providing information about the food we eat. It is very closely related to the sense of taste. Animals also use smell (chemicals called pheromones) to communicate sexual interest. EXIT

19 © West Educational Publishing Taste Taste receptors on the tongue are called taste buds. There are four types of taste receptors: salty, sweet, sour, and bitter. These receptors combine sensations to create subtle flavors. Salty Sweet Sour Bitter EXIT

20 © West Educational Publishing Perception Size constancy: ability to remember the size of an object no matter where it is located Color constancy: ability to perceive an object as the same color regardless of the environment Shape constancy: ability to perceive an object as having the same shape regardless of the angle Space constancy: ability to judge distance by perceiving either self or object movement Perceptual constancies use memory to maintain order in the world. EXIT

21 © West Educational Publishing Perceptual Organization Gestalt: making incomplete organization whole (they way something should be rather than how it actually is) Similarity: grouping like things together Proximity: grouping things together that are near each other Closure: filling in the missing details EXIT

22 © West Educational Publishing Closure Proximity Similarity Perceptual Organization EXIT

23 © West Educational Publishing Perceptual Illusions Franz Müller-Lyer designed this illusion in 1889. Illusions are misperceptions. They illustrate how we organize objects into meaningful perceptions. Which line is longer? EXIT

24 © West Educational Publishing The Vertical-Horizontal Illusion Are the two lines the same length? EXIT

25 © West Educational Publishing In the figure- ground illusion, the figure is in the front while the ground is in the back. Do you see the faces facing one another or do you see the vase? Figure-Ground Illusion EXIT

26 © West Educational Publishing Click the forward arrow to move the cylinder on the right forward to the middle cylinder. Which cylinder is largest? EXIT

27 © West Educational Publishing Which cylinder is largest? Now click the forward arrow to move the cylinder forward to the front cylinder. EXIT

28 © West Educational Publishing Which cylinder is largest? EXIT

29 © West Educational Publishing Summary of Main Topics Covered Sensory Processes Perception Vision Hearing Touch Smell Taste EXIT


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