Events affecting attachment Prior to pregnancy –beliefs, planning During pregnancy –confirming, accepting, quickening.fetal identity Intrapartum –preparation, emotional state Postpartum –birth, seeing baby, touching, giving care
Factors hindering attachment Unwanted pregnancy difficult pregnancy or labor stress during pregnancy anesthesia sick or deformed infant C-section Busy L&D,rigid policies or routines no rooming in separation from infant maternal complications no support systems negative comments
Factors enhancing attachment Planned pregnancy baby close to “ideal” right gender prepared childbirth easy labor no complications good feeder staff compliance, support compliments support systems
Signs of attachment Names baby before birth or shortly after Wants to hold, feed, room in with infant When holding infant is focused on baby, not on phone, visitors, self or TV Calls infant by name, makes eye contact Identifies distinguishing characteristics which are “just like his father”, or brother, etc.
Terminology Attachment--mother to infant bonding Engrossment--father to infant bonding Entrainment--the postural adjustments mother and baby make to each other Celebrating--relive birth experience with themselves and with others, happy excitement
Mother to infant infant to mother Touch--typical pattern look--en face voice--high pitched entrainment time (biorhythms) lymphocytes and macrophages flora odor heat eye to eye cry entrainment oxytocin odor prolactin
Typical mother behavior patterns with infant Crooning voice high pitched talk finger tip touching examines extremities palmar enfolding of trunk holds baby close to body en face position
Father to infant behavior Finger pokes kitchy kitchy koo playful holds baby out but facing his face roughhouse as baby gets older, more with male children