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1 Occupational Hazards Associated with the Moving Image Archivists Profession.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Occupational Hazards Associated with the Moving Image Archivists Profession."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 1 Occupational Hazards Associated with the Moving Image Archivists Profession

3 2 What’s behind your door? ? Door No. 1 Door No. 2

4 3 Objectives Review different environmental factors or stresses that may cause sickness, impaired health or significant discomfort in workers Review different environmental factors or stresses that may cause sickness, impaired health or significant discomfort in workers Review the film archive work environment, work activities and potential hazards Review the film archive work environment, work activities and potential hazards Review film base issues and discuss specific chemical hazards Review film base issues and discuss specific chemical hazards Review applicable programs that could apply to the film archive Review applicable programs that could apply to the film archive

5 4 Hazard vs. Risk Hazard = Capable of causing harm Hazard = Capable of causing harm Risk = Hazard + Probability Risk = Hazard + Probability Risk = Hazard + Outrage Risk = Hazard + Outrage

6 5 Environmental factors or Stresses Chemical hazards Chemical hazards Physical hazards Physical hazards Biological hazards Biological hazards Ergonomic hazards Ergonomic hazards

7 6 Chemical hazards Result from excessive exposure through inhalation, skin contact or ingestion of chemical agent(s). Result from excessive exposure through inhalation, skin contact or ingestion of chemical agent(s). Physical form of chemicals can be liquids, particulates (dust, fumes, mists, smoke), vapors or gases. Physical form of chemicals can be liquids, particulates (dust, fumes, mists, smoke), vapors or gases.

8 7 Chemical Hazards Toxicity Toxicity Acute vs. chronic effects Acute vs. chronic effects Dose response Dose response Individual variation Individual variation Physical Properties Physical Properties Flammability Flammability Reactivity Reactivity Corrosivity Corrosivity

9 8 Exposure Limits PEL TLV OSHA – Permissible Exposure Limit Has the effect of law ACGIH – Threshold Limit Value Independent, non-regulatory Considered to represent best available recommendation Are typically based on an 8-hr full shift exposure

10 9 Exposure limits ChemicalOSHA-PEL 8-hr Avg. ACGIH-TLV Odor Threshold Nitric acid 2 ppm Acetic acid 10 ppm 0.21–1 ppm Perchloroethylene(tetrachloroethylene) 100 ppm 25 ppm ~ ppm 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (methyl chloroform) 350 ppm 400 ppm Isopropyl alcohol (2-propanol) 400 ppm 200 ppm ppm

11 10 Exposure limits (cont.) ChemicalOSHA-PEL 8-hr Avg. ACGIH-TLV Odor Threshold Acetone 1000 ppm 500 ppm ppm Methanol 200 ppm 53 ppm Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) 200 ppm ppm Methylene chloride (dichloromethane) 25 ppm 50 ppm ppm Ammonia 50 ppm 25 ppm ppm

12 11 Exposure factors Concentration Concentration Time Time 8am10am12pm2pm4pm6pm Conc. (ppm) OSHA PEL For Acetic Acid

13 12Ergonomics Ergonomics – is the study of the design of work in relation to the physiological and psychological capabilities of people…also called biotechnology or human engineering Ergonomics – is the study of the design of work in relation to the physiological and psychological capabilities of people…also called biotechnology or human engineering Office ergonomics (sitting, computer work, etc.) Office ergonomics (sitting, computer work, etc.) Lifting rolls/cans of film Lifting rolls/cans of film Weight Weight Lifting height Lifting height Using manual winders Using manual winders Sitting Sitting Arms ways from body Arms ways from body Wrist position Wrist position Lighting Lighting Temperature extremes Temperature extremes

14 13 Physical hazards Safety Safety Life safety (egress – exit pathways) Life safety (egress – exit pathways) Falls (ladders) Falls (ladders) Electrical Electrical Damaged power cords Damaged power cords Machine guarding Machine guarding Winders/projector Winders/projector Slips/falls Slips/falls

15 14 Physical hazards Noise Noise From viewing movies with sound tracks From viewing movies with sound tracks OSHA limit is 85 dBA as an 8-hr average OSHA limit is 85 dBA as an 8-hr average

16 15 Physical hazards Ionizing or non-ionizing radiation Ionizing or non-ionizing radiation Projector lamps (Xeon bulbs can produce harmful wavelengths of UV light (270 nm) Projector lamps (Xeon bulbs can produce harmful wavelengths of UV light (270 nm) Bright visible light hazards from projector bulbs Bright visible light hazards from projector bulbs Some static eliminators use radioactive materials (Po-210 or Am-241) Some static eliminators use radioactive materials (Po-210 or Am-241)

17 16 Biological Hazards Blood borne pathogens Blood borne pathogens First aid teams First aid teams Contaminated equipment Contaminated equipment Molds & Bacteria Molds & Bacteria Contaminated film Contaminated film Contaminated storage facility or HVAC equipment Contaminated storage facility or HVAC equipment

18 17 Hazard review ChemicalErgonomicPhysicalBiological Toxicity Physical properties Ionizing/Non-ionizing radiation Noise Safety (egress, mech, elect, falls, etc.) Blood borne pathogens Molds & bacteria CTD, (material handling, etc.)

19 18 Hazard Assessment Process Anticipate Recognize Control Evaluate

20 19 Hierarchy of Hazard Control Substitution Substitution Engineering Engineering Administrative Administrative Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

21 20 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Discuss proper use of PPE Discuss selection and limitations of gloves Needs to be done

22 21 Film archive environment Typical work activities Typical work activities Receiving and inspection of new inventory Receiving and inspection of new inventory Storing film under controlled conditions Storing film under controlled conditions Conservation of films Conservation of films Inspection/viewing Inspection/viewing Cleaning Cleaning Copying Copying Restoring Restoring

23 22 Receiving, Inspection & Viewing Activities Activities Material handing Material handing Inspection Inspection Data entry Data entry Hazards Hazards Ergonomic – lifting, carrying, use of manual winders Ergonomic – lifting, carrying, use of manual winders Cuts from packaging, film can or film Cuts from packaging, film can or film Eye issues – dust, impact with leader Eye issues – dust, impact with leader Film condition – mold, decomposition, chemical/cleaning contamination Film condition – mold, decomposition, chemical/cleaning contamination

24 23 Rewind – Manual and Power Discuss manual winding issues, arm and hand positions

25 24 Winders Payoff Control Take up Control Archival Wind Speed Setting for: - acetate - polyester Non Critical Film Elements Only!!

26 25 Splicers Discuss mechanical “pinch” hazards

27 26 Viewers

28 27 Storing film Activities Activities Material handling Material handling Working in controlled environment (cold/dry) Working in controlled environment (cold/dry) Data entry Data entry Hazards Ergonomic Mechanical – pinch points, automatic rack systems Material falling Indoor air quality Chemical exposure Film decomposition Off-gassing

29 28 Racks

30 29 Conservation work - Inspection Activities Activities Winding and unwinding Winding and unwinding Visual inspection Visual inspection Environment (ambient temp./higher humidity) Environment (ambient temp./higher humidity) Hazards Ergonomic Eye strain/injury Cuts Exposure to mold or chemicals

31 30 Racks Double roll – 2000 ft 35 mm film weighs about 15 lbs Double roll – 2000 ft 35 mm film weighs about 15 lbs Single roll – 1000 ft weighs about 7 lbs Single roll – 1000 ft weighs about 7 lbs

32 31 Racks

33 32 Conservation - Cleaning Activities Activities Loading/unloading film into cleaning equipment Loading/unloading film into cleaning equipment Handling solvents Handling solvents Hazards Skin contact and inhalation of cleaning solvents

34 33 Conservation - Restoration Activities Activities Retouching Retouching Re-coloring Re-coloring Mold removal Mold removal Splicing Splicing Hazards Chemicals Biocides

35 34 Solvent cleaning Solvents used can include: Solvents used can include: Trichloroethane Trichloroethane Perchloroethane Perchloroethane 3M Solvent 3M Solvent IPA IPA Potential hazards: Potential hazards: Defattening of skin Defattening of skin Narcosis Narcosis liver liver

36 35 Film base Cellulose nitrate: Cellulose nitrate: mm 35mm Cellulose triacetate: 1940’s – present Cellulose triacetate: 1940’s – present 8mm, Super 8mm, 9.5mm, 16mm, 28 mm, 35mm & 70mm 8mm, Super 8mm, 9.5mm, 16mm, 28 mm, 35mm & 70mm Polyester: Mid-1950’s to present Polyester: Mid-1950’s to present Super 8mm, 16mm, 35mm & 70mm Super 8mm, 16mm, 35mm & 70mm

37 36 House Keeping Film Handling Areas Film Handling Areas Vault Areas Vault Areas Staging Area Staging Area

38 37 Volatiles released from film Residual casting solvents Residual casting solvents Off-gassing of cleaning solvents Off-gassing of cleaning solvents Volatile degradation products Volatile degradation products

39 38 Residual solvents from manufacturing Methylene chloride Methylene chloride Acetone Acetone N-butanol N-butanol Cyclohexane Cyclohexane 1,2 dichloropropane 1,2 dichloropropane

40 39 Off-gassing from film cleaning products 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (ozone depletion substance –ODS) 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (ozone depletion substance –ODS) Perchloroethylene (also known as tetrachloroethylene Perchloroethylene (also known as tetrachloroethylene Cl-C-CH 3 Cl - - Cl-C=C-Cl Cl - -

41 40 Cellulose nitrate film base Severe fire/explosion risk Severe fire/explosion risk Requires special storage facilities Requires special storage facilities Degrades to form oxides of nitrogen Degrades to form oxides of nitrogen Acidic by-products Acidic by-products (accelerates degradation) (accelerates degradation) Skin and respiratory Skin and respiratory irritants irritants

42 41 Cellulose triacetate film base Vinegar syndrome Vinegar syndrome 1000 ft roll could release 250 teaspoons of acetic acid equivalent to ~ 1.3 quarts 1000 ft roll could release 250 teaspoons of acetic acid equivalent to ~ 1.3 quarts

43 42 Vinegar Syndrome Acetic acid hazards/characteristics Acetic acid hazards/characteristics Symptoms at various concentrations Symptoms at various concentrations Measurement of acetic acid Measurement of acetic acid Draeger tubes Draeger tubes Passive dosimeters Passive dosimeters IPI strips IPI strips

44 43 Regulatory impacts Safety & Health Transportation regulations Environment -Air -Water -Solid waste Local requirements

45 44 Applicable HSE Programs Emergency preparedness (exits, fire, medical emergencies) Emergency preparedness (exits, fire, medical emergencies) Hazard communication Hazard communication Ergonomics Ergonomics Personal protective equipment Personal protective equipment Electrical safety Electrical safety Machine guarding Machine guarding Environment permits (air /water) Environment permits (air /water) Possible transportation issues Possible transportation issues

46 45 Questions

47 46 An effective Hazard Communication Program should be able to: Identify typical workplaces where hazardous chemicals are present. Identify physical hazards and health hazards of chemicals. Identify measures to take to protect yourself from hazards associated with chemicals. Explain how to detect the presence or release of a hazardous chemical. Identify who is responsible for your organization's Written Hazard Communication Program and where it is located. Explain health effects in terms of toxicity and exposure.

48 47 An effective Hazard Communication Program should be able to – Cont.: Explain toxicity and the factors effecting toxicity. Identify the conditions of exposure and the factors effecting exposure. Define target organ effects and list associated chemical categories and the general health effects they have on the body. Explain the labeling system used in your work area. Explain where MSDSs are kept. Explain the information on an MSDS. Identify how to obtain appropriate hazard information associated with chemicals.

49 48 An Effective Personal Protective Equipment Program will allow you to: Select the correct PPE Describe when to use PPE Demonstrate how to don PPE Demonstrate how to doff PPE Demonstrate how to adjust and wear PPE Describe the limitations of PPE Describe the care of PPE Demonstrate how to maintain PPE Identify the end of useful life of PPE Safely dispose of PPE

50 49 An Effective Ergonomic Program will: Describe what ergonomics is and how to apply ergonomic principles to the design of workplaces and tasks in an effort to reduce musculoskeletal risk factors. Identify the common types of musculoskeletal disorders and the factors that may contribute to their occurrence. Perform office assessments using basic task analysis skills and problem solving tools and techniques to identify and reduce musculoskeletal risk factors in the workplace. Describe how an ergonomics program functions and explain their roles and responsibilities in the program. Train other employees related to the Ergonomics of computers.

51 50 An Electrical Safety Training Course will provide: Training on electrical hazards common to employees and the effects of electricity to the body. Topics include de-energizing equipment, inspecting cords and plugs, operating electrical disconnects, GFCI's and alerting techniques used to warn other employees. The course should be intended on meeting the training requirements for OSHA 29 CFR as it relates to "unqualified persons". Discuss how electricity can harm you Recognize how to avoid electrical hazards Describe how to work safely around electrical equipment Locate different kinds of electrical hazards

52 51 Emergency Preparedness – Three Parts: Part 1: Fire Extinguisher Training Identify the types of fire extinguishers used at your facility "Size-up" an incipient fire Identify and properly operate fire alarms Identify methods of extinguishing various types of small fires Operate an extinguisher and put out a fire

53 52 Emergency Preparedness – Three Parts: Part 2: Blood borne Pathogen Training Define BBPs and the risks associated with exposure. Identify the tasks that have potential occupational exposure to BBPs. Describe how to protect yourself when performing these tasks. Describe the proper procedure for removing contaminated gloves. Explain the benefits, risks, and OSHA requirements for Hepatitis B vaccinations. Define the process, identified in your Exposure Control Plan (ECP), for reporting exposure

54 53 Emergency Preparedness – Three Parts: Part 2 Cont. : Standard First Aid List the check points of safety to determine if it's safe to respond to an emergency situation. Describe and recognize the risks, signs, and symptoms of a heart attack. Describe and recognize the signs and symptoms of a breathing emergency. Demonstrate how to control bleeding. Demonstrate how to care for nonlife-threatening emergencies such as strain, sprain, or fracture. Describe how to use the community's emergency medical services (EMS) system effectively.

55 54 Emergency Preparedness – Three Parts: (a) An Exit Must Be Permanent Part 3: Means of Egress (for more information go to - Exit Routes [Means of Egress] - 61: )www.osha.gov ) (b) The Number Of Exit Routes Must Be Adequate (c) An Exit Has Limited Openings (d) An Exit Must Be Separated By Fire Resistant Materials (e) Exit Route Access Must Be Unobstructed (f) An Exit Must Lead Outside What are the design requirements for exit routes? (g) An Exit Door Must Be Unlocked (h) A Side-hinged Exit Door Must Be Used (i)The Capacity Of An Exit Route Must Be Adequate (j) An Exit Must Meet Minimum Height And Width Requirements (k) An Outdoor Exit Route Is Permitted

56 55 Emergency Preparedness – Three Parts: Part 3: Means of Egress (for more information go to - Exit Routes [Means of Egress] - 61: )www.osha.gov What are the operation and maintenance requirements for exit routes? (a)The Danger To Employees Must Be Minimized (b) Lighting Must Be Adequate (c) An Exit Must Be Marked Appropriately (d) The Fire Retardant Properties Of Paints Or Other Coatings Must Be Maintained (e) Each Emergency Safeguard Must Be Maintained (f) Exits Must Be Maintained During Construction And Repair (g) An Employee Alarm System Must Be Operable

57 56 Emergency Preparedness – Three Parts: Part 3: Means of Egress (for more information go to - Exit Routes [Means of Egress] - 61: )www.osha.gov What are the requirements for an Emergency Action Plan? (a)An Emergency Action Plan Must Be Available for Employee Review (b) Minimum Elements Of An Emergency Action Plan (c) Employee Alarm System (d) Training (e) Employee Review

58 57 Emergency Preparedness – Three Parts: Emergency Preparedness – Three Parts: Part 3: Means of Egress (for more information go to - Exit Routes [Means of Egress] - 61: ) What are the requirements for a Fire Prevention Plan? (a) A Fire Prevention Plan Must Be Available For Employee Review (b) Minimum Elements Of A Fire Prevention Plan (c) Employee Information


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