2 Close Encounters with Chemicals We encounter chemicals almost every dayFilling your vehicle with gasolineCleaning the bathroomApplying pesticides or insecticidesUsing solvents or cleaning materials at workMany chemicals can cause injury or illness if not handled properly.I. Background for the Trainer:Have the attendees give examples of chemicals that they or other staff members, use at the school or at home.Ask the class if a chemical has ever caused them to feel sick (hangovers from too much alcohol don’t count but are a valid example).Have they ever burned their skin or eyes with a chemical?II. Speaker’s Notes:These are all examples of why we are conducting this class. We want you to be able to work safely with hazardous chemicals at school, other places of work and at home. As long as you understand the hazards and know how to protect yourself from those hazards, working with chemicals can be done safely.
3 Hazard Communication ‘Goals’ Right to Know chemical hazardsPPE, first aid, spills/leaksLabels, Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)QuizI. Speaker’s Notes:The goal of this training session is to make sure you have a complete understanding of:Right to KnowPPE, first aid, spills and leaksLabels and MSDSsAt the end of this session, we’ll take a short quiz to test your understanding.
4 Right to KnowWISHA created the Hazard Communication Standard to help ensure your safety when working with hazardous chemicals.You have a RIGHT TO KNOW about the hazardous chemicals you use on the job and how to work safely with those chemicals.I. Speaker’s Notes:WISHA has created the Hazard Communication Standard to help ensure your safety when working with chemicals.The Hazard Communication Standard requires employee training to include:A discussion of the operations at your school district that use hazardous chemicalsHow to detect the presence or release of a hazardous chemicalA discussion of the physical and health hazards of chemicalsHow employees can protect themselves from the hazardous chemicalsThis training module will cover the basics of all the required topics. Feel free to ask questions during the presentation if anything is unclear or needs further explanation.
5 Hazard Communication Standard Chemical manufacturers must:Determine a chemical’s hazardsProvide labels and MSDSsEmployers must:Provide a Hazard Communication ProgramMaintain MSDSsTrain on hazardous materialsI. Speaker’s Notes:Chemical Manufacturers must:Determine physical and health hazards of each product they makeLabel all containersMake and provide material safety data sheets (MSDS)Employer’s must have and make the following available to employees:A written hazard communication programA list of the hazardous chemicals that the school district usesMaterial safety data sheetsTraining that teaches employees:About the Hazard Communication StandardAbout chemicals that are used in the workplaceTo recognize, understand, and use labels and MSDSsTo use safe procedures
6 HazCom Standard (cont.) Employees must:Read labels and MSDSsFollow employer instructions and warningsIdentify hazards before starting a jobParticipate in trainingI. Speaker’s Notes:As with any program, the Hazard Communication Standard will not be effective without the participation of all employees.You should know where MSDSs are located and how to find the MSDS for a specific chemical. You should also know how to pull out important information such as the health hazards, symptoms of exposure, and how to protect against those hazards (i.e., using PPE).Ask each person in the class if they know how to access an MSDS at their workplace; e.g., the school, admin office, “bus barn”, maintenance shops, etc.
7 Chemical Hazards Physical Hazards: Health Hazards: Flammable Explosive ReactiveHealth Hazards:CorrosiveToxicI. Speaker’s Notes:Most people understand and recognize physical hazards and know how to protect themselves against them (e.g., no smoking near the propane tank). However, few people recognize and understand chemical hazards and, therefore, do not know how to protect themselves. Sometimes the effects of a hazardous chemical are not felt immediately; therefore, appropriate precautions are not taken.Physical hazards include: fires or explosions, sudden release of pressure, or reactivity (e.g., when a chemical can burn, explode, or release gases after contact with water, air, or other chemicals). Have employees give examples (from both work and home) of each of the categories listed under physical hazards.Flammable: Acetone, propane, gasoline, paintsExplosive: Compressed gas cylinders, aerosol cansReactive: Mixture of bleach and ammoniaHealth hazards include: illnesses or other health problems that could develop as a result of overexposure to a chemical. Short-term effects include headache, dizziness, skin irritation. Long-term effects may be liver or lung damage or even cancer. Have employees give examples (from both work and home) of each of the categories listed under health hazards.Corrosive: Nitric acid, many strong household cleanersToxics: Pesticides, benzene in gasoline, many solvents, lead
8 Routes of Entry Skin and eye contact Inhalation Swallowing Penetration (skin absorption)I. Speaker’s Notes:Skin and eye contact: Irritation (e.g., itchiness, blisters) caused by solvents, degreasers, soaps; burns caused by corrosives; internal reactions (e.g., toxins) caused by hydrocarbon solvents; and allergic reactions (e.g., hives) caused by chromates or nickelInhalation: Headache, nausea, dizziness, lung damageSwallowing: This usually means contact with food or smoking, not openly drinking a hazardous chemical. Nausea, vomiting, dizziness, liver or kidney damagePenetration: The introduction of a chemical with a needle
9 Chemical Exposure Dosage Acute effects Chronic effects I. Speaker’s Notes:Dosage: The MSDS will list the dosage, or exposure level, allowed for each hazardous chemical. These exposure levels are typically called Permissible Exposure Level (PEL) as set by WISHA or Threshold Limit Value (TLV) as recommended by ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) and refer to the quantity of hazardous chemical that an average employee can safely be exposed to in an eight-hour work day. This is just like your doctor telling you to take one pill every eight hours. If you take two pills in an eight hour period, you are technically overdosing and could suffer some side effects. The school district works to maintain exposure levels below these levels with engineering controls, ventilation, PPE, etc.Acute effects: These are short-term effects or symptoms that disappear once the victim is no longer exposed to the chemical. They include rashes, burns, respiratory irritation, and poisoning.Chronic effects: These are long-term effects that develop over a long period of exposure. They include allergies, lung or liver damage, cancer, etc.
10 Hazard Communication ‘Goals’ Right to know and chemical hazardsPPE, first aid, spills/leaksLabels and MSDSQuizI. Speaker’s Notes:Are there any questions? Do you understand your “right to know”? Is everyone clear on the hazards of chemicals?Time to move on to the next area.
11 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for Hazardous Chemicals Dust masks and respiratorsGlasses, goggles, and face shieldsHearing protectionGlovesFoot protectionHead protectionAprons or full-body suitsI. Background for the Trainer:Discuss areas in your school district in which the following PPE would be used. If several different types of the PPE are offered, discuss each type.Obviously we would never expect to see a anyone wearing this type of PPE while working for the school district. (Refer to the photo on the slide.)What types of PPE do we expect school district employees to use for protection from chemical hazards? Bring examples of district supplied PPE to this training class.II. Speaker’s Notes:Dust masks and/or respirators: Used when working in environments with hazardous dusts, vapors, liquids, or gases. (Remember, anyone who uses a respirator as part of the normal job function must be involved in a formal respirator training program.) Does this district have any certified asbestos or lead abatement workers? What about other maintenance worker duties? The science teacher?Glasses, goggles, and face shields: Used when working around equipment that cuts, grinds, shears, etc., and also when working with hazardous liquids that may splash. (Remember, regular prescription glasses do not meet the requirements of safety glasses.) If you need prescription safety glasses your employer (the school district) is required to purchase them for your use while working at your job. Examples: maintenance workers, shop teachers, science teachers. Any others?
12 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for Hazardous Chemicals(con’t) Hearing protection: Used when working with noisy equipment or in a high noise area. (Remember, employees who must work in a high noise area -- as defined by WISHA -- must be involved in a formal hearing protection program. However, there should not be any school district employee in this situation.Gloves: There are many types of gloves to protect from many hazards including but not limited to hazardous chemicals. Examples: Bloodborne Pathogens (BBP) requirements, handling science chemicals, maintenance work, transportation department mechanics, groundskeepers. Are there others in this school district?Foot protection: Used when working with hazardous chemicals that may splash onto the feet. Examples: Transportation and maintenance workers and science teachers. Others?Head protection: Might include hard hats or hoods to protect from chemical splashes or exposure. Examples?Once you know what PPE to wear when using the chemical, you must follow the instructions and warnings on the MSDS or label. This means no shortcuts. Wear the required PPE.Give examples of PPE that is available (for hazardous chemical protection) at various sites throughout the school district and discuss specific conditions that will require PPE usage.Be sure that each employee that might be required to use PPE has been trained how to use it. Discuss the proper fit of PPE – One size does not fit all.From this discussion, make recommendations to management regarding the necessity to purchase new or different PPE.
13 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for Hazardous Chemicals(con’t)
14 Hazardous Materials First Aid Eyes: Flush with water for 15 minutesSkin: Wash with soap and waterInhalation: Move to fresh airSwallowing: Get emergency medical assistanceI. Background for the Trainer:Discuss your school district’s emergency procedures, so employees understand how to report and handle medical emergencies. Where are first-aid kits and emergency shower and eyewash stations located? Is the employee permitted to take another employee to the eyewash station, or does a person trained in first aid need to do this?Discuss first aid training requirements in this school district.II. Speaker’s Notes:This first-aid information is generic and will work for most chemicals. However, the chemical label and MSDS will provide the best first-aid information. A MSDS should accompany anyone who is going to see a medical provider because of exposure to a chemical.Do not delay transportation of the injured person to medical treatment while looking for a MSDS. If accessing the MSDS will delay treatment, transport the victim, then access the MSDS, then phone, fax or deliver the MSDS to the medical provider immediately.
15 Spills and Leaks Evacuate the area Notify a supervisor or the emergency response teamRemove ignition sources (if safe to do so)Stay awayCall 9-1-1I. Background for the Trainer:First of all, have employees discuss what types of spills or leaks might occur at your school district. Could a drum be punctured by a forklift? Could a tank or pipe rupture? What kind of chemicals could be leaked in volumes that would require evacuation?Discuss your school district’s emergency response plan and the procedures that employees must understand to spot and report a spill and evacuate. This would be a good time to pass out an evacuation map and discuss evacuation routes and meeting locations.Recently, at an ESD 101 high school, a backhoe accidentally “bumped” the outside wall while performing summer work. Later, someone entered the school and discovered that the “bump” had knocked all of the science lab chemicals off their shelves onto the floor. A major hazardous chemical clean-up was required and the building could not be used for several days.II. Speaker’s Notes:This training session is not intended to teach you how to respond to a spill or leak. The intent is to make sure you know how to spot a spill or leak, how to report it, and how to evacuate the area. This is also called “awareness level” training.
16 Hazard Communication Goals Right to Know chemical hazardsPPE, first aid, spills/leaksLabels, Material Safety Data sheetsQuizI. Speaker’s Notes:Are there any questions? Does everyone understand PPE, first aid, and spill/leak response?Let’s move on to the next topic.
17 Importance of Labels The identity of the chemical Name, address, and emergency phone number of the manufacturerPhysical and health hazardsSpecial handling instructionsBasic PPE recommendationsFirst aid, fire response, spill cleanupI. Background for the Trainer:Pass out chemical containers that you brought as an example. Encourage employees to read and look at the labels while you speak. Someone will most likely have a question about something on a label. This will encourage discussion.II. Speaker’s Notes:Labels are critical to your safety when working with chemicals at work and at home. How many of you have taken the time to really read the label on a chemical? A person will take the time to read the label of a can of food out of concern over the sodium or fat content. However, that same person may be unaware that the label on a favorite cleaner warns not to breathe the vapors.Every label is different, but they all have similar information. Labels will quickly tell you about the topics on the slide.Make sure every chemical container has a label. Put labels on secondary containers when used for a chemical that was dispensed out of a larger container such as a drum. Labels on secondary containers can be as easy as the name of the chemical (e.g., acetone).Read labels, follow the warnings and instructions, and always ask a supervisor if you do not understand the label information.
18 NFPA Labeling Systems NFPA = National Fire Protection Association Red = FlammabilityBlue = HealthYellow = ReactivityWhite = Other hazards or special handlingScale: 0 (No Hazard) to4 (Extreme Hazard)I. Speaker’s Notes:The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and other organizations have developed a color/number coded labeling system.These labels are used as a quick identifier so you can easily determine the basic hazards associated with a chemical. If the numbers in any colored area are high, such as a 3 or 4, then you should definitely look more closely at the label and MSDS.Compare two chemical container labels that have an NFPA label. One with low numbers and the other with high numbers. You will find that the chemical with the high numbers will usually contain much more information about the hazards, PPE, special handling, etc.
19 Other Label Warnings The identity of the chemical Name, address, and emergency phone number of the manufacturerPhysical and health hazardsSpecial handling instructionsBasic PPE recommendationsFirst-aid, fire response, spill cleanup.I. Speaker’s Notes:Most labels will also have additional information and warnings, such as those listed on the slide, that will help you work safely with a chemical.
20 Material Safety Data Sheet Program Reading an MSDSMSDS locationsFinding a specific MSDSI. Background for the Trainer:Reading the MSDS: Tell employees to read the MSDS before starting a job that requires use of an unfamiliar hazardous chemical.MSDS Locations: Where are your MSDSs located? They need to be accessible for employees. Are they in binders; if so, where are the binders?Finding an MSDS: Does your school district have a system for organizing the MSDSs? Are they in alphabetical order or organized by chemical type? Is there an index?Pass out copies of the MSDSs that you selected for discussion. The purpose of these next few slides is to make employees aware of the information they can find on an MSDS, not to have them memorize the sections.You can either go over these next few slides on MSDSs and then discuss your school district’s MSDSs, or, after each slide, find the same information and sections in the MSDSs that you passed out.II. Speaker’s Notes:Discussing MSDSs is important, but not as important as the labels that were discussed previously. This is because the label quickly gives you the information you need at a glance. The MSDS provides more in-depth information about the chemical you are working with.You usually need to know the hazards of the chemical, what PPE should be worn, symptoms of exposure, and first-aid information.
21 Material Safety Data Sheets Chemical and manufacturer identityHazardous ingredientsPhysical and chemical characteristicsFire, explosion, and reactivityI. Speaker’s Notes:Manufacturer identity: Name and emergency phone number of manufacturer.Chemical identity: Name, manufacturer’s identity number, chemical synonyms.Hazardous ingredients: Shows the percentage of different hazardous chemicals that are in the hazardous product. Also shows exposure levels such as Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) and Threshold Limit Value (TLV).Physical and chemical characteristics: What does the chemical look and smell like? Does it evaporate readily? Do the vapors rise into the air, or do they stay near the ground? Does it mix with water? Is it heavier, or lighter, than water?Fire, explosion, reactivity: What materials are used to fight a fire that involves the chemical? Does it give off vapors that burn readily? Is the chemical not compatible with any other materials? Does it decompose or possibly react with itself?
22 Material Safety Data Sheets (cont.) Health hazardsRoutes of entryExposure levels (PEL or TLV)Symptoms of exposureFirst-Aid and emergency informationI. Speaker’s Notes:Health hazards is a very important section for you to read and understand. It is important to know the signs of overexposure and how a chemical can affect you.Routes of entry: How can the chemical affect you? The main routes of entry are inhalation (breathing in vapors), skin absorption, and ingestion (swallowing).Exposure levels: These are safety guidelines established by WISHA and American Congress of Government Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH) for the average adult. However, each person is affected differently. In fact, two people conducting the same work can be impacted differently. One person can become sick from a chemical while the other doesn’t feel anything.Symptoms of exposure: If symptoms occur, there has probably been overexposure and the employee should stop using the chemical and seek first aid.First aid: This section will explain what actions should be taken to correct overexposure symptoms.
23 Material Safety Data Sheets (cont.) Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)Safe handling and storageSpills and leaksCompliance issuesI. Speaker’s Notes:PPE: This section is crucial because it explains how employees can protect themselves from health hazards. The MSDS will provide guidance on skin, eye, hand, and respiratory protection. It may also suggest use of mechanical ventilation (e.g., a fan).Safe handling: This section may suggest grounding chemical containers, keeping containers closed when not in use, storing away from incompatible materials and in a ventilated area, etc.Spills and leaks: This section outlines steps to take in the event of a spill or leak. Never try to clean without the proper training.Compliance issues: What are the disposal requirements for this chemical? Does the Department of Transportation have specific shipping restrictions? Is the chemical required to be reported under community right-to-know laws? In Washington, the Department of Ecology regulates hazardous chemical spill clean-up and must be notified of all spills.
24 Hazard Communication Goals Right to Know chemical hazardsPPE, first aid, spills/leaksLabels, Material Safety Data sheetsQuizI. Speaker’s Notes:Are there any questions? Does everyone understand chemical labels and MSDSs?Let’s summarize and move on to the Quiz.
25 Hazard Communication Summary Identify chemical hazards by reading labels and MSDSsFollow warnings and instructions, or ask your supervisor if in doubtUse the correct personal protective equipment (PPE)Practice sensible, safe work habitsLearn emergency proceduresI. Speaker’s Notes:Here are the main points you should take away from this training session.
26 QuizChemical manufacturer’s must label containers and provide_________________________.Employers should keep material safety data sheets in a locked file cabinet. T or FDizziness, nausea, rashes, and respiratory irritation are signs of _________________ exposure.List three routes by which a chemical can enter the body: __________, ___________, ______________.Household chemicals are never as hazardous as chemicals used at work True or FalseI. Background for the Trainer:Handout the quiz copies. Go over the questions verbally and have the employees write their answers on their quiz sheets.
27 Quiz (cont.)On NFPA labels, a 4 in the red diamond indicates an extreme health hazard. True or FalseTypical first-aid for chemicals splashed in the eyes includes __________________________.You will only know the health hazards and PPE requirements if you _______________________.A _________ can be used to protect against breathing hazardous vapors or gases.If you see a chemical spill, you should clean it immediately True or False
28 Quiz AnswersMaterial safety data sheets must be provided by the manufacturer.False. MSDSs must always be accessible to the employees.These are all symptoms of acute effects, or short-term exposure.The primary routes chemicals enter the body are skin and eye contact, inhalation, and swallowing.False. Many household chemicals are more hazardous than chemicals found at work.
29 Quiz Answers (cont.)False. The red diamond indicates flammability hazards, not health hazards.Flushing the eyes for 15 minutes is the typical first aid for chemicals splashed in the eyes.You must read the labels and MSDSs to learn how to protect yourself from the hazards of a chemical.Respirators protect against breathing hazardous vapors and gases.(Written program, medical exam, fit test and training are all required).False. Only attempt to clean a chemical spill if you’ve been properly trained.