Presentation on theme: "Fumigant Poisonings and PPE "It is not my contention that chemicals never be used. I do contend that we have put poisonous and biologically potent chemicals."— Presentation transcript:
Fumigant Poisonings and PPE "It is not my contention that chemicals never be used. I do contend that we have put poisonous and biologically potent chemicals in the hands of persons largely or wholly ignorant of their potential harm" (Rachel Carson, Silent Spring, 1964) MSU Pesticide Education Program Montana Department of Agriculture
Pesticide Poisoning is common in Montana. 31% of private applicators surveyed have been at least mildly poisoned by exposure to pesticides. Always minimize bad habits while wearing recommended PPE to minimize exposure.
Why are they not protecting themselves? ‘practical reasons’
Applicators Focus on Acute Toxicity Toxicity which occurs within seconds, minutes or hours. Applicators focus on acute toxicity and corresponding signal words..
Signal Words / LD50 Caution (Category IV) You can drink the stuff Table 2. Signal words found on pesticide labels.
Chronic Toxicity Long Term Exposure –Many repeated low dose exposures Definition EPA mandates testing for chronic toxicity of: –Active ingredients only Usually on rats This is very expensive Chronic toxicity statements are placed on the product label (carcinogen, mutagen, reproductive damage, etc..)
Some of our “Safest” chemicals Chronic Affects Evident –Immune system problems –Sores, Rashes
Does ‘Caution’ indicate PPE is not needed? Often disregarding PPE statements on pesticides which show low acute toxicity
Bad Habits also lead to Pesticide Poisoning Alarmingly, 25% of applicators surveyed ingested food while applying pesticides without washing hands prior! This increases exposure dramatically and may be extremely dangerous. This may lead to acute or chronic pesticide poisoning.
More bad habits…. 70% of all applicators surveyed removed gloves at some point in their career while repairing spray equipment. 9% never wore gloves to begin with.
Montana Poisonings: Why? Bad Habits –Eating while applying pesticides (25%) –Chewing and smoking while applying pesticides (20%) Shortcuts –Not wearing proper PPE (58%) –Taking gloves off (79% of applicators) Recurring focus on only Acute Toxicity MSU PEP is trying to remind applicators to focus on just letting history be our guide!
Are applicators protecting others from pesticides?
Reading the product label can help you! *It can minimize risk towards yourself or your family.
(Thursday) February 4, 2010 Brenda Toone called Bugman Pest and Lawn because vole problems still existed after a previous application of Ramik Brown was made on the property
(Friday) February 5, 2010 Cole Nocks arrived at 8:30 am and treated 6-7 vole holes with 1.2 lbs of Fumitoxin pellets (according to his invoice) Mrs. Toone smelled an odor immediately after the application Mr Nocks told Mrs. Toone that “the product was heavier than air and would not come out of the soil” and that it would “kill the critters” The entire family was out of the house from 10:00 am to 2:05 pm When the family returned home at 2:05 pm the CO2 monitor was going off
(Friday) February 5, 2010 Mrs. Toone smelled a “strong pungent odor” in the garage At 2:18 pm Mrs. Toone called Bugman Pest and Lawn and left a message worried about the odor (no return phone call was made by the Company). The Co. denies receiving a call At 2:22 pm Mrs. Toone called Layton City Fire Department (FD) to report the CO2 monitor going off Layton City FD arrived on the scene and checked for CO2 leaks. Finding no CO2 readings on their devices the FD left the property
(Saturday) February 6, 2010 The mother was gone from the house all day Everyone else in the family got sick (nausea and vomiting). At 7:52 pm Rebecca is transferred by ambulance to Davis Hospital and Medical Center in cardiopulmonary arrest. Resuscitative efforts were unsuccessful. At 8:35 pm 4-yr. old Rebecca Toone passed away
(Sunday) February 7, 2010 Rachel Toone, age 15 months, developed shortness of breath, was taken to Primary Children’s Medical Center Rachel Toone was in critical condition and put on life support Rachel Toone was taken off of life support on Tuesday, February 9 and passed away shortly thereafter as a result of Phosphine exposure (according to the Medical Examiner)
Application sites: What is the problem? Front Porch Walkway and Driveway
On Site Information National Guard take phosphine gas readings in throughout the house –(17.8 to 25 ppm in area by front door) –(5 to 25 ppm at top of stairs) –(up to 48 ppm in garage) Pellets are put in a 55 gallon garbage can with water to destroy the product (wet method) UDAF allowed onto the premises Monday at 1:30 pm and allowed in the house at 5:30 pm
Mistakes made by Applicator: Fumitoxin Label Requirements THIS PRODUCT MUST NOT BE APPLIED INTO A BURROW SYSTEM THAT IS WITHIN 15 FEET OF A BUILDING THAT IS, OR MAY BE, OCCUPIED BY HUMANS, AND/OR ANIMALS ESPECIALLY RESIDENCES. Prior to treating a rodent burrow on a property containing an inhabited structure, the applicant must provide the customer (e.g. homeowner) with a MSDS or appropriate sections of the Applicator’s Manual. Use application procedures appropriate to the type of burrow system being treated. DOSAGE RATES MUST NOT BE EXCEEDED UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES. NO FMP; FMP’s mandatory prior to all applications
How does alluminum phosphide work? Phosphine gas is a product of the reaction between Aluminum Phosphide and water Phosphine gas is highly mobile and given enough time may penetrate seemingly gas-tight materials such as concrete and cinder block. If the structure is to be entered after fumigation, it must be aerated until the level of phosphine gas is 0.3 ppm or below.
0.3 ppm or more in the atmosphere This level is usually not detectable by smell At 1 ppm or more, smell become a factor (garlic or rotten fish odor from the warning agent), but damage to the body is taking place. 1 ppm is = 1 drop of water in an Olympic size swimming pool swimming pool
Primarily through the respiratory tract Exposure secondarily occurs through the eyes and ear drums Skin exposure can also occur and can be serious at chafe points around the waist. Especially where sweat accumulates. Hence one of the reasons for wearing loose fitting clothes
Mild allergic type reaction: sneezing, itchy eyes, tearing, coughing, tightness of breath Irritation of the mucus membranes in the nose Burning sensation in the sinus, throat, & lungs Inability to catch breath Dizziness, ringing in ears, nausea & vomiting Staggering & tremors Loss of urinary and/or bowel control Fatigue and loss of consciousness
Phosphoric acid is formed.
Body reactions are dependent upon the weight, health, & age of the victim as well as the duration and intensity of the exposure.
No link to cancer or birth defects known Chronic bronchitis / susceptibility to pneumonia Exposure to phosphine can act as a triggering event to cause other serious disorders These include: Allergic Respiratory impairment Nervous system impairment
Phosphine exposure can trigger the onset of nervous system disorders in people with compromised systems: –Parkinson's Disease (muscle rigidity, tremor, a slowing of physical movement) –Neuropathy from other pesticide exposures (numbness in extremities) –Multiple sclerosis (your immune system attacks your nervous system)
0-0.3ppm No Respiratory Protection Required Respiratory Protection
0.3-15ppm = Full face canister mask
Above 15ppm or unknown concentration =SCBA
38 Handlers who use respirators must be: fit-tested trained physically fit to wear a respirator* * Module 5: Protections for Handlers & Workers
You and your handlers should know how to: aerate the target site and verify that it contains no more than 0.3ppm phosphine aerate the target site and verify that it contains no more than 0.3ppm phosphine
determine when respiratory protection must be worn and which type of equipment. determine when respiratory protection must be worn and which type of equipment. protect nearby persons from exposure to levels above the 8 hour time weighted average (TWA) of 0.3 ppm or the 15 minute TWA short term exposure limit (STEL) of 1.0 ppm phosphine. protect nearby persons from exposure to levels above the 8 hour time weighted average (TWA) of 0.3 ppm or the 15 minute TWA short term exposure limit (STEL) of 1.0 ppm phosphine. direct proper placement and removal of placards from the target site. direct proper placement and removal of placards from the target site. Do you and your handlers know how to:
Placards must be posted at or near all entrances to fumigation site Placards must be posted at or near all entrances to fumigation site withstand adverse weather conditions and be in place for a minimum of 48 hr withstand adverse weather conditions and be in place for a minimum of 48 hr Placards must have Placards must have the name of the fumigation company and a 24-hour emergency telephone number the name of the fumigation company and a 24-hour emergency telephone number DANGER / PELIGRO DANGER / PELIGRO the EPA registration number of the product the EPA registration number of the product The date when the application was initiated The date when the application was initiated Looking out for others; Placarding