Presentation on theme: "Safety Training Presentation"— Presentation transcript:
1 Safety Training Presentation Working Safely With Benzene 29 CFRSpeaker’s Notes:Benzene is found in the air from emissions from burning coal and oil, gasoline service stations, and motor vehicle exhaust. Workers in industries that use chemicals containing benzene can also be exposed to benzene vapors.Benzene has serious short-term and long-term health effects, so it is very important to protect workers from its hazards.In this training session, we will discuss the health effects, potential exposure, air monitoring, medical surveillance, and benzene controls.
2 Goals Health and fire hazards, exposure monitoring Controls, safe work practices, PPEQuizSpeaker’s Notes:We will start by learning about benzene, potential exposure, health hazards, fire hazards, and exposure monitoring.Next we will discuss engineering controls, safe work practices, personal protective equipment (PPE), emergencies, and medical surveillance.Finally, we will wrap up the class with a quiz.
3 Benzene Uses Solvent for making other chemicals and plastic Manufacture of detergents and pharmaceuticalsGasolineSpeaker’s Notes:Benzene is used as a solvent in making other chemicals and plastics, such as fats, waxes, resins, oils, inks, paints, plastic, and rubber.It is used in the manufacture of detergents, explosives, pharmaceuticals, and dyestuffs.Benzene is also found in trace amounts in gasoline and other motor fuels.
4 Potential Exposure Work in industries that manufacture or use benzene Emissions from burning coal, oil, vehicles, gasolineTobacco smokeDrinking contaminated waterSpeaker’s Notes:Employees who work in industries that manufacture or use benzene may be exposed to the highest levels of benzene. Physical and mechanical processes, such as heating, pouring, spraying, open containers, and confined space exposures are more likely to result in higher exposures.Benzene is found in emissions from burning coal and oil, motor vehicle exhaust, and evaporation from gasoline service stations and in industrial solvents. These sources contribute to elevated levels of benzene in the ambient air, which the public may breathe.Tobacco smoke contains benzene and accounts for nearly half the national exposure to benzene.Individuals may also be exposed to benzene by consuming contaminated water. Benzene mixes very well with water.
5 Physical Properties Colorless liquid Volatile Heavier than air Highly flammableSweet odorSpeaker’s Notes:Benzene occurs as a colorless liquid.It is volatile, which means it easily evaporates.Benzene vapors are almost three times heavier than air, which means benzene vapors will stay close to the ground and flow into low areas such as pits.Benzene is highly flammable.It has a sweet, pleasant odor with an odor threshold of 1.5 ppm (5 mg/m3).
6 Acute Health Effects Irritated eyes and skin Irritated nose and throat Skin redness and blistersDizziness, headache, vomitingConvulsions, coma, deathSpeaker’s Notes:The following acute, or short-term, health effects may occur immediately or shortly after exposure to benzene.Liquid or vapor benzene can irritate the eyes and skin.The upper respiratory tract, including the nose and throat, can be irritated by exposure to benzene liquids or vapors.Skin contact with liquid or vapor benzene may result in redness and blisters.Benzene can cause symptoms of dizziness, light headedness, headache, and vomiting.Convulsions and coma, or sudden death from irregular heart beat, may follow short-term high exposure.
7 Chronic Health Effects Causes drying or scaling of skinAffects blood cellsCauses chromosomal aberrationsMay effect reproductive systemsCauses cancer—leukemiaSpeaker’s Notes:The following chronic, or long-term, health effects can occur at some time after exposure to benzene and can last for months or years.Long-term exposure of benzene can cause drying or scaling of the skin.Repeated exposure to benzene affects the bone marrow, which produces blood cells. Aplastic anemia, excessive bleeding, and damage to the immune system may occur.Benzene is also known to cause chromosomal aberrations in humans.There is limited evidence that benzene affects the reproductive systems of animals and humans. Studies suggest that benzene may impair fertility in women exposed to high levels, however, these studies have been inconclusive.Benzene is a known carcinogen in humans and has been shown to cause leukemia, which is cancer of the tissues that form white blood cells.
8 Fire Hazards Flammable liquid Poisonous gases produced Vapor is heavier than airBenzene floats on waterUse dry chemical, CO2, water spray, foamSpeaker’s Notes:Benzene is a flammable liquid. Benzene vapors can form an explosive mixture. Containers may explode in a fire. All ignition sources must be controlled when benzene is in use, handled, or stored.Poisonous gases are produced in a fire.Vapor is heavier than air and may travel a distance to cause a fire or explosion far from the source. Vapors may travel to a source of ignition and flash back.Benzene floats on water and may spread fire.Use dry chemical, CO2, water spray, or foam extinguishers.If employees are expected to fight fires, they must be trained and equipped. Do notfight a fire unless trained.
9 Workplace Limits OSHA: 8 hours - 1 ppm; 15-min. – 5 ppm ACGIH: 8 hours ppm; 15-min. – 2.5 ppmNIOSH: 10 hours ppm; 15-min. – 1 ppmCarcinogens may not have a safe exposure levelSpeaker’s Notes:OSHA’s legal airborne permissible exposure limit (PEL) is 1 ppm averaged over an 8-hour work shift and 5 ppm not to be exceeded during any 15-minute work period.The American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists’ (ACGIH) recommended airborne exposure limit is 0.5 ppm averaged over an 8-hour work shift and 2.5 ppm as a STEL (short-term exposure limit).The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health’s (NIOSH) recommended airborne exposure limit is 0.1 ppm averaged over a 10-hour work shift and 1 ppm not to be exceeded during any 15-minute work period.Benzene is a carcinogen in humans. There may be no safe level of exposure to a carcinogen, so all contact should be reduced to the lowest possible level. The above exposure limits are for air levels only. When skin contact also occurs, you may be overexposed, even though air levels are less than the limits listed above.
10 Exposure Monitoring Breathing zone air samples 8-hour time weighted averageShort-term exposure levelsTest urine samplesBackground for the Trainer:Bring exposure monitoring reports that have been done at your workplace.Speaker’s Notes:Employee exposure is determined from breathing zone air samples that are representative of each employee’s average exposure to airborne benzene.The 8-hour time weighted average (TWA) is determined from a sample representing the full shift of exposure.Short-term exposure levels (STELs) are determined from 15-minute samples that are measured at operations where there is reason to believe exposures are high, such as when tanks are opened or filled, or when benzene is used in an uncontrolled situation during maintenance work.Measurement of breakdown products in the urine (phenol) can estimate personal exposure. However, the breath, blood, and urine tests must be done shortly after exposure and are not helpful for measuring low levels of benzene.
11 More Exposure Monitoring Monitoring frequencyTermination of monitoringMore monitoringEmployee notificationSpeaker’s Notes:If monitoring shows that employee exposure is at or above the action level but below the time weighted average (TWA), monitoring must be repeated annually. If monitoring shows employee exposure is above the TWA, then monitoring must be repeated at least every 6 months.If periodic monitoring reveals that employee exposures are below the action level for at least two consecutive measurements taken at least 7 days apart, then monitoring may be discontinued for that employee or work area.Monitoring must be done when there has been a change in the production, process, control equipment, personnel, or work practices that may result in new or additional exposure to benzene. Monitoring must also be conducted whenever spills, leaks, or other breakdowns may lead to exposure and to ensure that the workplace has been returned to the level of exposure that existed prior to the incident.Employees must be notified of monitoring results within 15 days after receiving the results. Employees must be notified in writing either individually or by posting the results. If the permissible exposure limits (PELs) are exceeded, written notification must include corrective action being taken by the employer to reduce employee exposure to below the PEL.
12 Goals Health and fire hazards, exposure monitoring Controls, safe work practices, PPEQuizSpeaker’s Notes:Do you have any questions regarding benzene, potential exposure, health hazards, fire hazards, and exposure monitoring?Now, let’s discuss engineering controls, safe work practices, personal protective equipment (PPE), emergencies, and medical surveillance.
13 Exposure Above the PEL Engineering controls and work practices Respiratory protectionWritten compliance programBackground for the Trainer:Bring a copy of your company’s written compliance program.Speaker’s Notes:If employee exposure is at or above the permissible exposure limit (PEL), the engineering controls and work practices must be implemented to reduce and maintain employee exposure to benzene below the PEL.If engineering controls and work practices are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure below the PEL, they must be supplemented by the use of respiratory protection.If employee exposure is above the PEL, the employer must establish a written program with a plan to reduce employee exposure below the PEL. The written program should include a schedule of the development and implementation of engineering controls and work practice controls.
14 Engineering Controls Enclose or isolate operations Local exhaust ventilationAutomatic and enclosed pump systemsVapor control systemBackground for the Trainer:Discuss any engineering controls that have been installed in your workplace.Speaker’s Notes:Engineering controls are the most effective way of reducing exposure.The best protection is to enclose or isolate benzene operations. Establish regulated areas where only authorized personnel can enter.Provide local exhaust ventilation at the site of benzene operations.Where possible, automatically pump liquid benzene from drums or other storage containers to process containers. Workers should not be exposed to open containers or potential leaks of pumps, hoses, and other pumping equipment.Utilize a vapor control system for containing the total vapors displaced during the loading of benzene-containing chemicals. Benzene-containing vapors are displaced through a vapor processing or control system or transferred from the storage tank, as it fills, back to the tank truck, as it empties.
15 Safe Work Practices Remove contaminated clothing Do not take contam- inated clothing homeEye wash station should be providedEmergency shower should be providedBackground for the Trainer:Bring examples of any written safe work practices that have been implemented in your workplace.Speaker’s Notes:Safe work practices can help to reduce hazardous exposures. The following work practices are recommended:Workers whose clothing has been contaminated by benzene should change into clean clothing promptly.Do not take contaminated work clothes home. Family members could be exposed. Contaminated work clothes should be laundered by individuals who have been informed of the hazards of exposure to benzene.Eye wash stations should be provided in the immediate work area for emergency use.If there is the possibility of skin exposure, emergency shower facilities should be provided.
16 More Safe Work Practices Shower at end of work shiftDo not eat, drink, or smoke near benzeneWash hands before eating, smoking, using restroomConfined spaces—check for explosive gasesSpeaker’s Notes:Upon skin contact with benzene, immediately wash or shower to remove the chemical. At the end of the work shift, wash any areas of the body that may have contacted benzene, whether or not known skin contact has occurred.Do not eat, smoke, or drink where benzene is handled, processed, or stored, since the chemical can be swallowed.Wash hands carefully before eating, drinking, smoking, or using the toilet.Before entering a confined space where benzene may be present, check to make sure that an explosive concentration does not exist.
17 Handling and Storage Regulate and mark area Keep away from oxidizing agentsStore in tightly closed containerNo smoking or sources of ignitionGround containers during transferUse non-sparking toolsSpeaker’s Notes:A regulated, marked area should be established where benzene is handled, used, or stored.Benzene is not compatible with oxidizing agents (such as perchlorates, peroxides, permanganate, chlorates, nitrates, chlorine, bromine and fluorine); fluorides; nitric acid; and diborane.Store in tightly closed containers in a cool, well-ventilated area away from HEAT.Sources of ignition, such as smoking and open flames, are prohibited where benzene is used, handled, or stored.Metal containers involving the transfer or pumping of benzene should be grounded and bonded.Use only non-sparking tools and equipment, especially when opening and closing containers of benzene.
18 Communicating Benzene Hazards Post signsDanger BenzeneCancer HazardFlammable— No SmokingAuthorized Personnel OnlyRespirator RequiredLabel containersMaterial Safety Data SheetsBackground for the Trainer:Bring examples of signs, labels, and material safety data sheets (MSDSs) that you have in your workplace.Speaker’s Notes:Post signs at entrances to regulated areas. The signs must have the following information:Danger Benzene Cancer Hazard Flammable – No Smoking Authorized Personnel Only Respirator RequiredContainers of benzene must also be labeled to warn employees:DangerContains BenzeneCancer HazardMSDSs must also be obtained and provided for employees to access at anytime.
19 Personal Protective Equipment Solvent-resistant clothing and glovesButyl Neoprene, VitonTM/NeopreneGogglesFace shieldBackground for the Trainer:Bring examples of PPE used in your workplace.Speaker’s Notes:Engineering controls and workplace controls are better than PPE. However, for some jobs such as outside work, confined space entry, jobs done only once in a while, or jobs done while workplace controls are being installed, PPE may be appropriate. OSHA requires employers to determine the appropriate PPE for each hazard and to train employees on how and when to use it. The following recommendations are only guidelines and may not apply to every situation.Avoid skin contact with benzene. Wear solvent-resistant gloves and clothing. Safety equipment suppliers/manufacturers can provide recommendations on the most protective glove/clothing material for your operation.Butyl Neoprene, Polyvinyl Alcohol, Silver Shield, and VitonTM/Neoprene are often recommended as protective materials for working with benzene.Wear impact and splash resistant goggles when working with liquids. Contact lenses should not be worn when working with benzene.Wear a face shield along with goggles when working with highly irritating or toxic substances such as benzene.
20 Respiratory Protection Installation of engineering controls, maintenance, emergenciesRespiratory protection program< 50 ppm – full-face organic vapor< 100 ppm – full-face powered organic vapor< 1,000 ppm – full-face supplied air> 1,000 ppm – full-face SCBABackground for the Trainer:Bring a copy of your company’s respiratory protection program.Bring examples of respirators used in your workplace.Speaker’s Notes:Respiratory protection should only be used as a last resort, such as during the installation of engineering and work practice controls or when these controls are not feasible such as during maintenance or repair activities or during emergencies such as spills or leaks.A respiratory protection program that meets OSHA’s requirements must be developed and implemented prior to employee use of respirators. Employees must be medically cleared to wear respirators, trained, and fit-tested. Respirators must be NIOSH approved.The OSHA standard for benzene has a table for respirator protection. For concentrations of benzene < 50 ppm, a full facepiece respirator with organic vapor cartridge is acceptable.For concentrations of benzene < 100 ppm, a full facepiece power air-purifying respirator with organic vapor canister is acceptable.For concentrations of benzene < 1,000 ppm, a supplied-air respirator with full facepiece in positive pressure mode is acceptable.For concentrations of benzene >1,000 ppm or unknown concentrations, a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) with full facepiece in positive-pressure mode or a full facepiece positive-pressure supplied-air respirator with auxiliary self-contained air supply are both acceptable.
21 First-Aid Eyes—flush with water Skin—remove clothing, wash with soap and waterBreathing—get to fresh airSwallowing—do not induce vomitingSpeaker’s Notes:Eye Contact - Immediately flush with large amounts of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. If irritation continues or vision appears to be affected, see a doctor as soon as possible.Skin Contact - Quickly remove contaminated clothing. Immediately wash area with large amounts of soap and water. Seek medical attention. Wash contaminated clothing before you wear it again.Breathing - Remove the person from exposure—get him or her to fresh air. Begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility.Ingestion – If benzene has been swallowed and the patient is conscious, do not induce vomiting. Call for medical assistance immediately.
22 Spills Evacuate from spill area Remove ignition sources Cover with activated charcoal adsorbentVentilate and wash areaSpeaker’s Notes:Only properly trained and equipped employees are allowed to clean up spills. Do not clean up a spill if you are not properly trained. If benzene spills or leaks, take the following steps:Evacuate employees who are not wearing protective equipment from area of spill or leak until clean-up is complete.Remove all ignition sources.Cover with an activated charcoal adsorbent and place in covered containers for disposal. Use non-sparking tools, such as shovels, when responding to a benzene spill.Ventilate and wash area after clean-up is complete.
23 Medical Surveillance Before beginning employment Regular intervals after thatEmergency examsBlood countPast and present symptomsPhysician’s written opinionSpeaker’s Notes:Employees who work with or are potentially exposed to benzene should be included in a medical surveillance program. All medical exams and procedures will be performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician. All exams and procedures are provided without cost to employees.Before beginning employment, new employees should be given a medical exam to determine a baseline assessment. This initial examination will include a detailed occupational history, complete physical exam, laboratory tests, and a pulmonary function test if required to wear respirators.Employees should undergo periodic, or annual, medical exams after that. These exams will include a brief medical history regarding any health changes, a complete blood count, a pulmonary function test, and any other appropriate tests as determined by the physician.If an employee is exposed to benzene in an emergency situation, the employee will provide a urine sample to have a urinary phenol test performed within 72 hours. If the result is greater than 75 mg phenol/L of urine, the employee will undergo complete blood count testing for the following 3 months.A major component of the medical exam is a complete blood count, since benzene exposure impacts the blood. A complete blood count includes an erythrocyte count, leukocyte count, and thrombocyte count. If there is an abnormality in the blood counts, the employee will be referred to a hematologist.Medical exams will also evaluate the history of past and present symptoms of exposure to benzene. If the employee develops signs and symptoms commonly associated with toxic exposure to benzene, the employee will be provided with additional medical examinations.Within 15 days after the exam, employees will be provided with a copy of the physician’s written opinion, which will contain information such as: pertinent results, medical conditions, recommended limitations, etc.
24 Goals Health and fire hazards, exposure monitoring Controls, safe work practices, PPEQuizSpeaker’s Notes:Do you have any questions regarding engineering controls, safe work practices, personal protective equipment (PPE), emergencies, and medical surveillance.Now, let’s wrap up the class with a quiz.
25 Summary Hazards of benzene Workplace exposure Follow all safe work practicesWear PPEMedical surveillanceSpeaker’s Notes:Learn more about the hazards of benzene, including health hazards and fire hazards. Learn about the symptoms of overexposure.Know which processes in your workplace are potential areas of exposure to benzene. Know where the regulated areas are and do not enter them unless authorized.Follow all the safe work practices for storing, handling, and transferring benzene.Wear personal protective equipment including clothing, gloves, eye and face protection, and especially respiratory protection.Stay involved with the medical surveillance program. Get annual physicals and follow through on referrals for additional testing if needed.
26 Quiz & Review Coming Up Speaker’s Notes: Learn more about the hazards of benzene, including health hazards and fire hazards. Learn about the symptoms of overexposure.Know which processes in your workplace are potential areas of exposure to benzene. Know where the regulated areas are and do not enter them unless authorized.Follow all the safe work practices for storing, handling, and transferring benzene.Wear personal protective equipment including clothing, gloves, eye and face protection, and especially respiratory protection.Stay involved with the medical surveillance program. Get annual physicals and follow through on referrals for additional testing if needed.
27 Quiz 1. What does benzene look and smell like? 2. Describe some acute health effects of breathing benzene vapors.3. What type of cancer is linked to chronic exposure?4. Besides a health hazard, what other hazard does benzene present?5. What do TWA and STEL stand for when discussing air monitoring?Background for the Trainer:Remind employees that the quiz is to encourage further discussion and to help you, the trainer, be sure that everyone understands what was discussed
28 Quiz (cont.) 6. Describe a benzene engineering control. 7. Discuss good hygiene practices when working with benzene.8. Describe safe practices when transferring benzene.9. What materials should protective gloves and clothes be made of?10. Who should be involved in the medical surveillance program?
29 Quiz Answers 1. Colorless liquid with a sweet odor 2. Irritate nose and throat, dizziness, headache, vomiting, convulsions, coma, death3. Leukemia4. Benzene is a fire hazard5. TWA—8-hour time weighted average, STEL—short-term exposure level
30 Quiz Answers (cont.)6. Engineering controls include enclosure, local ventilation7. Wash before eating, smoking; wash at end of shift; remove contaminated clothes8. No smoking, ground containers, non-sparking tools9. Butyl Neoprene, VitonTM/Neoprene10. Anyone that could potentially be exposed to benzene