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1 Introduction to Instructional Media Chapter One Review Presented by Kai A. Dupé January 22, 2004.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Introduction to Instructional Media Chapter One Review Presented by Kai A. Dupé January 22, 2004."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Introduction to Instructional Media Chapter One Review Presented by Kai A. Dupé January 22, 2004

2 2 Overview ► This chapter examines teaching and learning in order to understand the role of educational technology in the teaching and learning process.

3 3 Topics to be covered ► Examine differing views of educational technology. ► Explore learning within the framework of communication. ► Review key learning theories ► Examine the learner characteristics that affect learning.

4 4 More Topics ► Investigate teaching styles and their impact on learning. ► Explore teaching, learning, and technology from a systems view. ► Briefly review educational technology within a historical perspective. ► Synthesize your own view of the relationships between teaching, learning, and technology.

5 5 What is Educational Technology? ► There are different ideas about how to answer this question. It seems to depend on who you ask?

6 6 Definitions ► Educators have a very broad definition. ► Computer-oriented educators have a more narrow definition that includes computers and related software. ► Technologists define it in terms of the hardware available that may be used in the classroom.

7 7 Definition used by the text ► Educational Technology is the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management and evaluation of processes and resources for learning. ► This is the definition given by The Association for Educational Communication and Technology (ACET)

8 8 Why Study Technology? ► Methods such as lecture can be enhanced by using technology. ► In order to be able to know how to effectively use technology in order to enhance your teaching methods. ► In order to significantly improve communication.

9 9 Why Study Technology Cont’d ► Teachers need to know what is out there as far as technology in order to effectively enhance teaching. ► Technology can be used as a tool to create an effective instructional event.

10 10 Instructional Events ► Teachers construct instructional events for transferring knowledge and skills to their students. ► Learning is a transfer of knowledge from teacher to students. ► How humans incorporate new knowledge, behaviors and skills into ones individual personal repertoire.

11 11 How Do We Learn? ► Learning gets us to the psychological views of human behaviors. ► Psychologists are not in agreement on these views. ► We must remember that we are examining theories. These are not proven. ► Create your own view from the views out there to determine how you will design an instructional event.

12 12 How Do We Learn? ► Technology is an instructional end, not an end in itself. ► To use technology effectively, the teacher must have a clear understanding of learning and the teaching strategies that will result in the intended knowledge transfer. ► The teaching strategies you select will then determine the appropriate types of technology tools needed to execute them

13 13 Learning As Communication ► One early approach to learning was to view it as a communication process between sender (Teacher) and receiver (Student)

14 14 Variables ► Environmental Factors. ► Psychological Factors. ► Personal Filters.

15 15 Environmental Factors ► Noise ► Dim Lighting ► Excessive movements ► Uncomfortable temperatures

16 16 Psychological Factors ► Emotional state ► The way the message is transmitted ► Preferred sensory gateway (Learning style)

17 17 Personal Filters ► Personal Values ► Cultural Heritage ► Social belief system

18 18 Communication, Learning ► All of the barriers to communication interact with the communication process to determine the success of the teaching learning process. ► Once the message has been correctly transmitted is that learning?

19 19 What is a learning perspective? ► Different people can look at the same thing and see it in very different ways.

20 20 Perspectives ► Behaviorist ► Cognitivist ► Constructionist

21 21 Behaviorist Perspective ► They view all behavior as a response to external stimuli. ► A stimulus is the initial action directed to the organism, and a response is the organism’s reaction to that action. ► One learns as a response to the environment, not due to thinking.

22 22 Key Behaviorists ► Ivan Pavlov ► John Watson ► B.F. Skinner

23 23 Cognitivist Perspective ► Learning is mental activity (thinking) ► Behavior is still critical, but it is viewed as an indicator of thinking and not just an outcome of stimulus-response ► Thinking is undetectable by mere observation

24 24 Key Cognitivists ► Jean Piaget ► Jerome Bruner ► David Ausubel

25 25 Constructionist’s Perspective ► Knowledge is a constructed element resulting from the learning process ► Knowledge is unique to the individual who constructs it ► Combines thinking with the experiences of the individual ► At the present time, this view is the most influential force shaping contemporary education

26 26 Dominant Construction Views ► Cognitive-Constructionist Championed by Robert Gagné Learning is a result of an individual’s cognitive efforts to construct personal knowledge ► Social Constructionist Learning is considered a result of the collaboration of a group of learners in an effort to construct a common core of knowledge

27 27 Key Constructionists ► Robert Gagné ► Lev Vygotsky ► Albert Bandura

28 28 A View Of The Learner ► Cognitive style – refers to how one thinks, can be measured using the MBTI. ► Learning style – refers to how one best learns ► Intelligence – the inherent ability of the learner to understand and learn

29 29 Learning Styles ► Auditory (Listening) ► Visual (Seeing) ► Kinesthetic (Doing)

30 30 Multiple Intelligences ► Linguistic ► Logical ► Musical ► Spatial ► Body-Kinesthetic ► Interpersonal ► Intrapersonal ► Naturalistic ► Existential

31 31 Summary ► Utilize a systems view of teaching ► Develop an understanding of learning ► Develop an understanding of the individual environmental factors that affect the learner ► Understand your own learning style and dominant intelligence ► Align your teaching style with your student’s learning style

32 32 The Idea ► After evaluating all of the above you are better able to see how technology fits into the learning environment.

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