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4.2 > 4.2 Structure of the Nuclear Atom > 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 4 Atomic Structure 4.1.

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Presentation on theme: "4.2 > 4.2 Structure of the Nuclear Atom > 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 4 Atomic Structure 4.1."— Presentation transcript:

1 4.2 > 4.2 Structure of the Nuclear Atom > 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 4 Atomic Structure 4.1 Defining the Atom 4.2 Structure of the Nuclear Atom 4.3 Distinguishing Among Atoms

2 4.2 > 4.2 Structure of the Nuclear Atom > 2 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Subatomic Particles What are three kinds of subatomic particles? Much of Dalton’s atomic theory is accepted today. One important change, however, is that atoms are now known to be divisible. They can be broken down into even smaller, more fundamental particles, called subatomic particles. Three kinds of subatomic particles are electrons, protons, and neutrons. Subatomic Particles

3 4.2 > 4.2 Structure of the Nuclear Atom > 3 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Subatomic Particles In 1897, the English physicist J. J. Thomson (1856– 1940) discovered the electron. Electrons are negatively charged subatomic particles. Thomson performed experiments that involved passing electric current through gases at low pressure. He sealed the gases in glass tubes fitted at both ends with metal disks called electrodes. The electrodes were connected to a source of electricity. Electrons

4 4.2 > 4.2 Structure of the Nuclear Atom > 4 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Electrons Subatomic Particles One electrode, the anode became positively charged. The other electrode, the cathode, became negatively charged. The result was a glowing beam, or cathode ray, that traveled from the cathode to the anode.

5 4.2 > 4.2 Structure of the Nuclear Atom > 5 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Electrons Subatomic Particles Thomson found that a cathode ray is deflected by electrically charged metal plates. A positively charged plate attracts the cathode ray, while a negatively charged plate repels it. Thompson knew that opposite charges attract and like charges repel, so he hypothesized that a cathode ray is a stream of tiny negatively charged particles moving at high speed.

6 4.2 > 4.2 Structure of the Nuclear Atom > 6 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Subatomic Particles To test his hypothesis, Thompson set up an experiment to measure the ratio of an electron’s charge to its mass. He found this ratio to be constant. Also, the charge-to-mass ratio of electrons did not depend on the kind of gas in the cathode-ray tube or the type of metal used for the electrodes. Thompson concluded that electrons are a component of the atoms of all elements. Electrons

7 4.2 > 4.2 Structure of the Nuclear Atom > 7 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Subatomic Particles The U.S. physicist Robert A. Millikan (1868–1953) carried out experiments to find the quantity of an electron’s charge. In his oil-drop experiment, Millikan suspended negatively charged oil droplets between two charged plates. He then changed the voltage on the plates to see how this affected the droplets’ rate of fall. An electron has one unit of negative charge, and its mass is 1/1840 the mass of a hydrogen atom. Electrons

8 4.2 > 4.2 Structure of the Nuclear Atom > 8 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Subatomic Particles If cathode rays are electrons given off by atoms, what remains of the atoms that have lost the electrons? For example, after a hydrogen atom (the lightest kind of atom) loses an electron, what is left? You can think through this problem using four simple ideas about matter and electric charges. 1.Atoms have no net electric charge; they are electrically neutral. 2.Electric charges are carried by particles of matter. 3.Electric charges always exist in whole-number multiples of a single basic unit; that is, there are no fractions of charges. 4.When a given number of negatively charged particles combines with an equal number of positively charged particles, an electrically neutral particle is formed. Protons and Neutrons

9 4.2 > 4.2 Structure of the Nuclear Atom > 9 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Subatomic Particles Protons and Neutrons It follows that a particle with one unit of positive charge should remain when a typical hydrogen atom loses an electron. In 1886, Eugen Goldstein (1850–1930) observed a cathode-ray tube and found rays traveling in the direction opposite to that of the cathode rays. He concluded that they were composed of positive particles. Such positively charged subatomic particles are called protons.

10 4.2 > 4.2 Structure of the Nuclear Atom > 10 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Subatomic Particles Protons and Neutrons In 1932, the English physicist James Chadwick (1891–1974) confirmed the existence of yet another subatomic particle: the neutron. Neutrons are subatomic particles with no charge but with a mass nearly equal to that of a proton.

11 4.2 > 4.2 Structure of the Nuclear Atom > 11 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. The table below summarizes the properties of these subatomic particles. Properties of Subatomic Particles ParticleSymbol Relative charge Relative mass (mass of proton = 1) Actual mass (g) Electrone–e– 1–1–1/  10 –28 Protonp+p  10 –24 Neutronn0n  10 –24 Interpret Data

12 4.2 > 4.2 Structure of the Nuclear Atom > 12 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. What evidence did Thompson have that led him to conclude the cathode ray was a stream of tiny negatively charged particles? The ray was attracted to a metal plate with positive electric charge, and Thompson knew that opposite charges attract and like charges repel.

13 4.2 > 4.2 Structure of the Nuclear Atom > 13 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. The Atomic Nucleus How can you describe the structure of the nuclear atom? When subatomic particles were discovered, scientists wondered how the particles were put together in an atom. Most scientists—including J. J. Thompson—thought it likely that the electrons were evenly distributed throughout an atom filled uniformly with positively charged material. In Thomson’s atomic model, known as the “plum- pudding model,” electrons were stuck into a lump of positive charge, similar to raisins stuck in dough.

14 4.2 > 4.2 Structure of the Nuclear Atom > 14 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. The Atomic Nucleus This model of the atom turned out to be short-lived, however, due to the work of a former student of Thomson, Ernest Rutherford (1871–1937). Born in New Zealand, Rutherford was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in In 1911, Rutherford and his co-workers wanted to test the existing plum-pudding model of atomic structure. They devised the gold-foil experiment. Their test used alpha particles, which are helium atoms that have lost their two electrons and have a double positive charge because of the two remaining protons.

15 4.2 > 4.2 Structure of the Nuclear Atom > 15 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. The Atomic Nucleus Rutherford’s Gold-Foil Experiment In the experiment, a narrow beam of alpha particles was directed at a very thin sheet of gold. According to the prevailing theory, the alpha particles should have passed easily through the gold, with only a slight deflection due to the positive charge thought to be spread out in the gold atoms.

16 4.2 > 4.2 Structure of the Nuclear Atom > 16 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. The Atomic Nucleus Rutherford’s Gold-Foil Experiment Rutherford’s results were that most alpha particles went straight through, or were slightly deflected. What was surprising is that a small fraction of the alpha particles bounced off the gold foil at very large angles. Some even bounced straight back toward the source.

17 4.2 > 4.2 Structure of the Nuclear Atom > 17 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. The Atomic Nucleus The Rutherford Atomic Model Based on his experimental results, Rutherford suggested a new theory of the atom. He proposed that the atom is mostly empty space. –Thus explaining the lack of deflection of most of the alpha particles. He concluded that all the positive charge and almost all of the mass are concentrated in a small region that has enough positive charge to account for the great deflection of some of the alpha particles.

18 4.2 > 4.2 Structure of the Nuclear Atom > 18 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. The Atomic Nucleus The Rutherford Atomic Model The Rutherford atomic model is known as the nuclear atom. In the nuclear atom, the protons and neutrons are located in the positively charged nucleus. The electrons are distributed around the nucleus and occupy almost all the volume of the atom. According to this model, the nucleus is tiny and densely packed compared with the atom as a whole. If an atom were the size of a football stadium, the nucleus would be about the size of a marble. Rutherford’s model turned out to be incomplete. The Rutherford atomic model had to be revised in order to explain the chemical properties of elements.

19 4.2 > 4.2 Structure of the Nuclear Atom > 19 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. What evidence from Rutherford’s Gold-Foil experiment disproves J.J. Thompson’s “plum-pudding model”? Rutherford observed that most of the particles passed through the foil with no deflection, and a small fraction were deflected at large angles or reflected directly back. If the plum-pudding model was true, most alpha particles would have been deflected at small angles by the evenly- spaced electrons.

20 4.2 > 4.2 Structure of the Nuclear Atom > 20 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Key Concepts Three kinds of subatomic particles are electrons, protons, and neutrons. In the nuclear atom, the protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus. The electrons are distributed around the nucleus and occupy almost all the volume of the atom.

21 4.2 > 4.2 Structure of the Nuclear Atom > 21 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Glossary Terms electron: a negatively charged subatomic particle cathode ray: a stream of electrons produced at the negative electrode (cathode) of a tube containing a gas at low pressure proton: a positively charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom neutron: a subatomic particle with no charge and a mass of 1 amu; found in the nucleus of an atom nucleus: the tiny, dense central portion of an atom, composed of protons and neutrons

22 4.2 > 4.2 Structure of the Nuclear Atom > 22 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Atoms have positively-charged protons and neutral neutrons inside a nucleus, and negatively-charged electrons outside the nucleus. BIG IDEA Electrons and the Structure of Atoms

23 4.2 > 4.2 Structure of the Nuclear Atom > 23 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. END OF 4.2


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