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© Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 1 of 25 Structure of the Nuclear Atom Cathode-ray tubes are found in TVs, computer monitors, and many other devices with electronic displays. 4.2
© Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Structure of the Nuclear Atom > Slide 2 of 25 Subatomic Particles What are three kinds of subatomic particles? 4.2 Three kinds of subatomic particles are electrons, protons, and neutrons.
End Show Slide 3 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > A Crumb Subatomic Particles Electrons In 1897, the English physicist J. J. Thomson (1856–1940) discovered the electron. Electrons are negatively charged subatomic particles. 4.2 Thomson performed experiments that involved passing electric current through gases at low pressure. The result was a glowing beam, or cathode ray, that traveled from the cathode to the anode.
End Show Slide 4 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > A Crumb Subatomic Particles Cathode Ray Tube 4.2
End Show Slide 5 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > A Crumb Subatomic Particles A cathode ray is deflected by a magnet. 4.2
End Show Slide 6 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > A Crumb Subatomic Particles A cathode ray is deflected by electrically charged plates. 4.2
End Show Slide 7 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > A Crumb Subatomic Particles Thomson concluded that a cathode ray is a stream of tiny, negatively-charged particles moving at high speed. He called them electrons. He found it didn’t matter what gas was in the tube, or what metal was used for the electrodes. Thomson measured the mass-to-charge ratio to show that the particles were all the same, and electrons are parts of the atoms of all elements. 4.2
End Show Slide 8 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > A Crumb Subatomic Particles Oil Drop Experiment 4.2 U.S. physicist Robert Millikan determined the charge carried by the electron. Using this value and the mass-to-charge ratio from the cathode ray experiment, the mass of the electron was determined. The electron carries exactly one unit of negative charge. Mass is 1/1840 the mass of a Hydrogen atom.
End Show Slide 9 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > A Crumb Subatomic Particles Protons and Neutrons In 1886, Eugen Goldstein (1850–1930) observed a cathode-ray tube and found rays traveling in the direction opposite to that of the cathode rays. He concluded that they were composed of positive particles. Such positively charged subatomic particles are called protons. 4.2
End Show Slide 10 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > A Crumb Subatomic Particles In 1932, the English physicist James Chadwick (1891–1974) confirmed the existence of yet another subatomic particle: the neutron. Neutrons are subatomic particles with no charge but with a mass nearly equal to that of a proton. 4.2
End Show Slide 11 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > A Crumb Subatomic Particles 4.2 Matter and Electrical Charge Atoms have no net charge (i.e. they are neutral) - you do not get a shock every time you touch something. Electrical charges are carried by particles of matter. Electrical charges exist in whole number multiples of a basic unit. When a given number of negative particles combine with an equal number of positive particles, an electrically neutral particle is formed.
End Show Slide 12 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > A Crumb Subatomic Particles This table summarizes the properties of electrons, protons, and neutrons. 4.2
End Show Slide 13 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > A Crumb The Atomic Nucleus J.J. Thompson and others supposed the atom was filled with positively charged material and the electrons were evenly distributed throughout. “Plum pudding” model This model of the atom turned out to be short- lived, however, due to the work of Ernest Rutherford (1871–1937). 4.2 Structure of the Atomic Nucleus
End Show Slide 14 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > A Crumb The Atomic Nucleus Rutherford’s Gold- Foil Experiment In 1911, Rutherford and his coworkers at the University of Manchester, England, directed a narrow beam of alpha particles at a very thin sheet of gold foil. 4.2
End Show Slide 15 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > A Crumb The Atomic Nucleus Rutherford’s Gold-Foil Experiment 4.2
End Show Slide 16 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > A Crumb The Atomic Nucleus Alpha particles scatter from the gold foil. 4.2
End Show Slide 17 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > A Crumb The Atomic Nucleus The Rutherford Atomic Model Rutherford concluded that the atom is mostly empty space. All the positive charge and almost all of the mass are concentrated in a small region called the nucleus. The nucleus is the tiny central core of an atom and is composed of protons and neutrons. Rutherord’s atomic model known as the nuclear atom 4.2
© Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Structure of the Nuclear Atom > Slide 18 of 25 The Atomic Nucleus In the nuclear atom, the protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus. The electrons are distributed around the nucleus and occupy almost all the volume of the atom. 4.2
© Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 19 of 25 Section Quiz -or- Continue to: Launch: Assess students’ understanding of the concepts in Section 4.2 Section Quiz 4.2.
© Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 20 of Section Quiz 1. Which of the following is NOT an example of a subatomic particle? a.proton b.molecule c.electron d.neutron
© Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 21 of Section Quiz 2. The nucleus of an atom consists of a.electrons only. b.protons only. c.protons and neutrons. d.electrons and neutrons.
© Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 22 of Section Quiz 3. Most of the volume of the atom is occupied by the a.electrons. b.neutrons. c.protons and neutrons. d.protons.
4.2 > 4.2 Structure of the Nuclear Atom > 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 4 Atomic Structure 4.1.
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The History of Atomic Theory Mr Nelson. Democritus The Greek philosopher Democritus began the search for a description of matter more than 2400 years.
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Atomic Models Through Time. B.C. Theorized that if you were to cut something in half, then cut it in half again and again… Eventually.
Atoms, Molecules, and Ions HOMEWORK n Read your textbook pages 74 to 78 and answer q 1 to 6 n Start a timeline in your notebook of the discoveries that.
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GO 3 Describe ideas used in interpreting the chemical nature of matter, both in the past and present, and identify example evidence that has contributed.
Mr Nelson. The Greek philosopher Democritus began the search for a description of matter more than 2400 years ago. He asked: Could matter be divided.
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