 Chapter 4 Atomic Structure

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Chapter 4 Atomic Structure

The Atom You cannot see the tiny fundamental particles that make up matter. Yet, all matter is composed of such particles, called atoms Atom – the smallest particles of an element that retains its identity in a chemical reaction

The Atom The radii of most atoms fall within the range of 5 x m to 2 x 10-10m. (very small) Individual atoms are visible with instruments such as scanning tunneling microscopes.

Subatomic Particles Atoms can be broken down into smaller particles, called subatomic particles. There are 3 kinds of subatomic particles. electrons protons neutrons

Electrons In 1897, English physicist J.J. Thomson discovered the electron. Electrons – negatively charged subatomic particles.

Cathode-Ray Tube Sealed gases in glass tubes fitted at both end with metal disks called electrodes. Electrodes were connected to a source of electricity. One electrode (anode) became positively charged. The other electrode (cathode) became negatively charged. Result was a glowing beam (cathode ray) that traveled from the cathode to the anode.

Cathode-Ray Tube Positively charged metal plate attracts the cathode ray, while a negatively charged plate repels it. Thomson knew that opposite charges attract and like charges repel. He hypothesized that a cathode ray is a stream of tiny negatively charged particles (electrons) moving at high speed.

Cathode-Ray Tube To test his hypothesis, Thomson set up an experiment to measure the ratio of the charge of an electron to its mass. He found this ratio to be constant. In addition, the charge-to-mass ratio of electrons did not depend on the kind of gas in the tube or the type of metal used for the electrodes. He concluded that electrons must be parts of the atoms of all elements.

The Electron An electron carries exactly one unit of negative charge
The electrons mass is 1/1840 the mass of a hydrogen atom. How do negatively charged plates affect the path of cathode rays? The negatively charged plate repels the cathode ray.

Protons and Neutrons Atoms have no net electric charge, they are electrically neutral Electric charges are carried by particles of matter Electric charges always exist in whole-number multiples of a single basic unit. When a given number of negatively charged particles combines with an equal number of positively charged particles, and electrically neutral particle is formed.

Protons and Neutrons A particle with one unit of positive charge should remain when a typical hydrogen atom loses an electron. There had to exist positive particles to balance out the negative electron since the atom is neutral. Protons – positively charged subatomic particles.

Protons and Neutrons Neutron – subatomic particles with no charge but with a mass nearly equal to that of a proton. Particle Symbol Relative Charge Relative Mass Actual mass (g) electron e- 1- 1/1840 9.11 x 10-28 proton p+ 1+ 1 1.67 x 10-24 neutron n0

Based on experimental results a scientist named Rutherford proposed that the atom is mostly empty space. He concluded that all the positive charge and almost all the mass are concentrated in a small region. Nucleus – the tiny central core of an atom and is composed of protons and neutrons.

Rutherford’s Atomic Model
Rutherford atomic model is know as the nuclear atom In the nuclear atom, the protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus. The electrons are distributed around the nucleus and occupy almost all the volume of the atom. The nucleus is tiny compared with the atom as a whole. Although an improvement over previous models of the atom, Rutherford’s model turned out to be incomplete and had to be modified.

Questions What are 3 types of subatomic particles?
Proton, neutron, & electrons. How does the Rutherford model describe the structure of atoms? A positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons, which occupy most of the volume.

Distinguishing Among Atoms
How are atoms of hydrogen different from atoms of oxygen? Elements are different because they contain different number of protons. Atomic number – of an element is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of that element. Example – all hydrogen atoms have 1 proton and the atomic number of hydrogen is 1. The atomic number identifies an element.

Distinguishing Among Atoms
Most of the mass of an atom is concentrated in its nucleus and depends on the number of protons and neutrons. Mass number – the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom Example: Helium atom contains 2 protons and two neutrons, so its mass number is 4 If you know the atomic number and mass number of an atom of any element, you can determine the atom’s composition.

Distinguishing Among Atoms
Example: Oxygen Atomic number is 8 = number of p+ = e- (So oxygen has 8 electron s and 8 protons.) Mass number is 16 = number of p+ plus the number of n0. (So oxygen has 8 neutrons) Number of neutron = mass number – atomic number 197 Au 79 Mass number Atomic number

Isotopes There are some elements that have different kinds of atoms of the same element Example – there are three different kinds of Neon atoms Isotopes – are atoms that have the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons. Because isotopes of an element have different numbers of neutrons, they also have different mass numbers. Isotopes are chemically alike because they have identical numbers of protons and electrons, which are the subatomic particles responsible for chemical behavior.

Hydrogen Isotopes 0 neutrons Mass # - 1 1 neutron Mass # - 2

Chemical Symbols of Isotopes
Write the chemical symbols for three isotopes of oxygen. Oxygen 16, oxygen 17, and oxygen 18. Mass Number (# protons + # neutrons) O O O Atomic number (# proton = # electrons)

Atomic Mass Actual masses of individual atoms are small and impractical to work with. It is more useful to compare the relative masses of atoms using a reference isotope as a standard The carbon-12 atom was assigned a mass of exactly 12 atomic mass units. Atomic mass unit (amu) – one twelfth of the mass of carbon-12 atom.

Atomic Mass In nature, most elements occur as a mixture of two or more isotopes. Each isotope of an element has a fixed mass and a natural percent abundance. Example – almost all naturally occurring hydrogen ( %) is hydrogen-1. The other two isotopes are present in trace amounts. The atomic mass of hydrogen is amu, and Is very close to the mass of hydrogen-1 ( amu)

Atomic Mass The slight difference takes into account the larger masses, but smaller amounts of the other two isotopes of hydrogen. Atomic mass – of an element is a weighted average mass of the atoms in a naturally occurring sample of the element. The atomic mass of copper is amu. Which of copper’s two isotopes is more abundant: copper -63 or copper-65? Atomic mass of is closer to 63 than 65, thus copper-63 must be more abundant.

Atomic Mass Atomic mass = multiply the mass of each isotope by its natural abundance, expresses as a decimal, and then add the products. Element X has two natural isotopes. The isotope with a mass of amu has a relative abundance of 19.91%. The isotope with a mass of amu has a relative abundance of 80.09%. Calculate the atomic mass of this element. ( amu x ) + ( amu x ) (1.993 amu) (8.817 amu) Atomic mass =

Question Copper – 63 has a mass of amu and 69.2% abundance. Copper-65 has a mass of amu and 30.8% abundance. What is copper’s average atomic mass? (62.93 amu x 0.692) + (64.93 amu x 0.308) ( amu) ( amu) Atomic mass = 63.55

Periodic Table Periodic Table – an arrangement of elements in which the elements are separated into groups based on a set of repeating properties.

Periodic Table Each element is identified by its symbol place in a square. The atomic number of the element is shown centered above the symbol. Elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number, from left to right and from top to bottom. Period - each horizontal row of the periodic table. Within a given period, the properties of the elements vary as you move across it from element to element. Group – each vertical column of the periodic table. Elements within a group have similar chemical and physical properties. Each group is identified by a number and the letter A or B.

Periodic Table What distinguishes the atoms from one element from the atoms of another? The number of protons What equation tells you how to calculate the number of neutrons in an atom? Mass number – atomic number = # of neutrons. How do the isotopes of a given element differ from one another? Different mass number and different numbers of neutrons.

Periodic Table What makes the periodic table such a useful tool?
It allows you to compare the properties of the elements What does the number represent in the isotope platinum-194? Write the symbol from this atom using superscripts and subscripts. It represents the mass number 194 Pt 78

Periodic Table Name the elements that have properties similar to those of the element calcium (Ca). Beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), strontium (Sr), Barium (Ba), radium (Ra) 194 Consider Pt how would changing the value of the 78 subscript change the chemical properties of the atom? The subscript is the number of protons in atoms of the isotope. Changing the number of protons would change the chemical identity of the isotope to that of another element.