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THE GERMAN INVASION OF FRANCE, AUGUST-OCTOBER 1870.

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Presentation on theme: "THE GERMAN INVASION OF FRANCE, AUGUST-OCTOBER 1870."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE GERMAN INVASION OF FRANCE, AUGUST-OCTOBER 1870

2 GEOFFREY WAWRO OFFERS SOME CONTROVERSIAL CONCLUSIONS ABOUT THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR: 1. That Moltke was the moderate in his debates with Bismarck in December 1870, but that their roles had reversed in January 1871 (279-80, 290). 2. That French republicans displayed “paranoid” and “totalitarian” leanings. 3. That Bismarck’s judgment was clouded by anti-French prejudice (239, ). 4. That France quickly developed a strong consensus in favor of moderate republicanism, while the desire for “revenge” soon faded (310-11). 5. That the war saddled Germany with “a military despotism cloaked in parliamentary forms” (302) and “empowered a whole class of militarists who linked Germany’s health to war and expansion” (312).

3 THE ENCIRCLEMENT OF THE FRENCH ARMY AT SEDAN, SEPTEMBER 1, 1870 (compare Wawro, 214)

4 Bismarck accompanies Napoleon III to meet King William I on the morning of September 2, 1870

5 Massive bombardment of Strasbourg on the Rhine caused its surrender on September 28, 1870

6 The Provisional Government of the Third Republic, led by Jules Ferry and Jules Favre, 4 September 1870

7 Ernest Meissonier, “The Siege of Paris” ( ): An appeal for resistance in the spirit of the Gauls (Wawro, 255)

8 “The Balloon” (November 1870), celebrating the escape of Leon Gambetta ( ): Was he really “totalitarian” or “paranoid”? (Wawro, 233-4, 251)

9 Narcisse Chaillou, “The Rat Butcher” (Paris in November 1870)

10 Anton von Werner, “The German Headquarters in Versailles” (December 1870): Bismarck & the Crown Prince argue with Moltke and Roon….

11 Ruined houses and shops in the St. Cloud district of Paris after German bombardment

12 Alphonse Neuville, “Le Bourget,” a failed sortie from Paris on December 21, 1870 (Wawro, )

13 Wilhelm I hailed as German Kaiser, Versailles, January 18, 1871

14 John Trumbull, “The Declaration of Independence” (1819)

15 Eugen Adam, “The German Flag is Hoisted at Fort Vauves, Outside Paris, January 19, 1871”

16 “Happy New Year!” (Kladderadatsch, January 1, 1871): In Faust, Goethe terms Mephistopheles “A part of that power Which always seeks evil, Yet always does good.” Napoleon III had sought “Germany’s downfall,” but from the cauldron Wilhelm I emerges as “Kaiser” with the orb and scepter of dominion.

17 WAR & CIVIL WAR IN FRANCE: THE PARIS COMMUNE 18 September 1870: Siege of Paris begins. 28 January 1871: Armistice between France & Germany. 8 February: National elections favor monarchists, because they call for peace. 1 March: National Assembly approves peace treaty ceding Alsace-Lorraine. 18 March: Fighting breaks out when Versaillais troops attempt to seize the cannon of the Paris National Guard. 26 March: Elections for the Paris Commune May 1871: The “Bloody Week” (Commune falls).

18 The German victory parade down the Champs Elysées, March 1, 1871

19 “France Signing the Preliminary Peace Terms” (March 1871)

20 Louis XIV seized parts of Alsace from the Holy Roman Empire in 1667; Louis XV inherited Lorraine in 1766.

21 The borders of the German Empire,

22 Adolphe Thiers ( ): Former premier under the July Monarchy, head of the provisional government in 1871 “The Two Republics” (1872): “Respectable” vs. “Red” Thiers argued that “today the Republic is the state form that divides us least.” But he warned radicals, “The Republic will be conser- vative, or it will not be.”

23 Barricade on Puebla Boulevard

24 “Paris Burning” (1871)

25 The Suppression of the Paris Commune, May 21-28, 1871

26 The destruction of City Hall

27 “CRIMES OF THE COMMUNE: The assassination of the hostages in La Roquette Prison, May 24, 1871” (including Archbishop Darboy)

28 H.F.E. Philippoteaux, “The Last Fighting at Père Lachaise” (1871)

29 Ernest Pichio, “The Triumph of Order” (1877)

30 THE FRENCH CONSTITUTIONAL COMPROMISE OF 1875

31 Dedication of the Victory Column, Berlin-Tiergarten, September 2, 1873

32 Constitution of 1871

33 “For his 60 th Birthday” (March 28, 1875): Bismarck as Atlas, bearing the weight of both “the German Reich” and “Foreign Affairs.” Does Wawro contradict himself regarding Bismarck’s role? See pp , ,

34 The Great Powers of Europe in 1880

35 FRANCEGREAT BRITAINGERMANY ??? THIRD REPUBLIC ( ): A weak president appoints the premier, who is “responsible” to the Chamber of Deputies. Indirectly elected Senate (with rural voters over- represented) retains veto power. 1832: Great Reform Act abolishes rotten boroughs 1871: Universal manhood suffrage for new Reichstag, but states retain three-class suffrage 1867: 2 nd Reform Act makes 40% of all men voters 1884: 3 rd Reform Act makes 60% of all men voters Chancellor & army are responsible only to Kaiser. 1911: Parliament Act abolishes veto power for the House of Lords WESTERN EUROPE WAS BECOMING DEMOCRATIC BY 1880

36 Austria- Hungary RussiaOttoman Empire 1867: Dual Monarchy created, with home rule for Hungary, but suffrage is restricted, and the parliaments in Vienna and Budapest are often paralyzed Tsar Alexander II ( ) abolishes serfdom, ordains trial by jury and elected county councils. Assassinated by the “People’s Will.” : Tanzimat reforms bring Western-style law courts and property rights 1876/7: Constitu- tional monarchy Alexander III revives “autocracy” ( ) : Defeat by Russia inspires Sultan Abdul Hamid II to restore absolutism EASTERN EUROPE MADE NO PROGRESS TOWARD DEMOCRACY


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