Presentation on theme: "Monarchies in Late 19 th Century Europe. Napoleon III As Louis Napoleon, nephew of Napoleon I, used his name recognition to be elected President of 2."— Presentation transcript:
Napoleon III As Louis Napoleon, nephew of Napoleon I, used his name recognition to be elected President of 2 nd French republic. 1851 stages a coup and makes himself President. Political opponents were arrested (10,000 transported to Algeria), troops took over the streets of Paris At the same time promised a new constitution and universal manhood suffrage. 90% of French voters ratified his actions 3 weeks later.
New constitution allowed legislature to debate laws, but not propose them. Senate to elect the President to a 10 year term. French people seemed to accept this democratic façade One year later Louis Napoleon declared himself Emperor Napoleon III, which was also ratified by a plebiscite. Catholic Church supported him as did most businessmen. Tried to cope with social changes caused by industrialization, grand public works projects which lead to rebuilding of Paris. Supported science (Pasteur) and education reform.
Wanted military glory. Interfered in Italy and Poland. Used French troops to invade Mexico in 1864 and place Austrian Archduke Maximillian on throne as emperor. Maximillian was overthrown and executed in 1867. Napoleon III was tricked into Franco- Prussian War in 1870, was captured by the Prussians at the Battle of Sedan and forced to abdicate by Otto von Bismarck.
Alexander IIAfter succeeding Nicholas I as Tsar of Russia, Alexander II moved to end the Crimean War. Saw himself as an enlightened monarch. One year after taking the throne he tried to instigate reforms in justice, education, and employment. Most important reform was abolishment of serfdom (freeing a total of 47 million serfs). Since nobles refused to cooperate, was done by royal decree. Serfs were often given the poorest land and ended up working for their old masters. The Liberator Tsar
Villages were allowed to create communes to control local lands. District councils called zemstvos handled many local affairs. Primary schools were increased drastically, censorship was relaxed, term for universal army draft went from 25 to 5 years A radical underground flourished – nihilists and anarchists who advocated violent change and populists who wanted to educate the masses. Alexander II assassinated by a thrown bomb in 1881. Succeeded by Alexander III.
Franz Joseph I Emperor of Austria who modernized and centralized gov’t of the Austrian Empire. Put in place a uniform system of taxes and laws. In his 1860 October Diploma he announced a new federal constitution giving regional diets more authority. His reforms failed to silence liberal agitators. Angry, Franz Joseph reversed himself. In 1861 issued the February Patent establishing a bicameral imperial legislature under the emperor’s control. This took power away from autonomous nationalities’ regional diets.
Hungarians led a campaign to reject all these changes. Franz Joseph felt he had to compromise to keep them in the empire. The result in 1867 was the Dual Monarchy. Hungary was made an autonomous state. The two kingdoms agreed to share the same foreign policy, with Franz Joseph as emperor of both nations as the Austro- Hungarian Empire. This lasts for 50 years until WWI.
Isabella II came to throne of Spain as an infant. During her youth Spain was controlled by a coalition of the army, the Church, wealthy businessmen, and regional interests. She was deposed in a 1868 revolt and fled to France when her army joined it. She formally abdicated in 1870. Her son eventually came to the Spanish throne as Alfonso XII after a brief (1 year) republic. Alfonso was a conservative, but not reactionary and ruled without major problems until 1885. Isabella II of Spain
Italy Italy remained a collection of independent kingdoms until unification began in 1859. It was finally unified in 1870. Unification was lead by the Kingdom of Piedmont Sardinia under King Victor Emmanuel II