Presentation on theme: "THE ROAD TO THE CIVIL WAR"— Presentation transcript:
1THE ROAD TO THE CIVIL WAR 5. SOUTHERN SLAVERY THE PECULIAR INSTITUTIONPrior to 1791 slavery was not profitableCotton Gin----Eli WhitneySouth relied on cotton and slaves.Cotton production doubles every 10 yearsKing Cotton6. Southern society7. Facts on Slavery8. Why did the South fight a war to preserve slavery when ¾ of Southerner’s did not own slaves?American Dream
29. SOCIAL OUTCRY AGAINST SLAVERY Rise of abolitionists to 1860William Lloyd GarrisonFrederick DouglassHarriet TubmanHarriet Beecher Stowe10. Did slaves revolt against slavery?Slave revolts Slave codes
3C O T T O N P R O D U C T I O NThe invention which changed the South, cotton, and slavery.1791: 4,000 bales of cotton are produced1849: 2, 246, 900 bales of cotton are produced6 cents a lb. to 14 cents in 1857Expanded into Arkansas and TexasCrop increase: 2,500,000 bales in 1850 to 5,300,000 in 1860Crop Value: In 1800, $8 million: In 1860, $250 millionTobacco by 1860 : 200,000,000 lbs. to 430,000,000 lbs.
5GROWTH OF SLAVERY Total U.S. population was 3.5 million… Trial of tearsGROWTH OF SLAVERYTotal U.S. population was 3.5 million…700,000 slaves in the U.S. at this time.Still bought slaves through the slave trade.
6GROWTH OF SLAVERY Total U.S. population was 18 million Trial of tearsGROWTH OF SLAVERYTotal U.S. population was 18 million2 million slaves in the U.S. at this time.1808, importation of slaves was illegalSlave trade within the U.S.Increase of slave population was from natural reproduction
733 million U.S. population, 4 million slaves in the South Trial of tearsGROWTH OF SLAVERY33 million U.S. population, 4 million slaves in the South
8COTTON BELT, Cotton Kingdom GROWTH OF SLAVERYCOTTON BELT, Cotton KingdomMap Crops in South
9SOUTHERN SOCIETY Plantation owners Aristocracy Southern society was similar to a Feudal system that existed in Europe during the Dark and Middle Ages…..(Manorial System)Caste system and difficult to move up the social ladder.Based on white supremacy and the slave was inferior.Plantation owners AristocracyUpper classOwned some slaves. Achieve American DreamMiddle Class Small farmersOwned no slaves….Hated white upper class…American DreamPoor WhitesFree Blacks, 2nd class citizensNo political or civil rights.Slaves---no rights, considered propertyFederal
10FACTS ON SLAVERYConditions on a slave ship were horrible. This was called the Middle Passage.At the Constitutional Convention3/5’s Compromise1807, imported slaves was abolished in the U.S.Fugitive Slave Law90% of Europe’s cotton came from the South by 18601/2 of U.S. exports were from cottonMore money invested in slaves than land and tools---$2 billionNorth looked to property as value, South’s value lay in human property
11More slaves you had the greater social status FACTS ON SLAVERYMore slaves you had the greater social status2/3’s of presidents since independence were slaveownersMajority of Supreme Court justices were from the South
12More millionaires in the South than the North FACTS ON SLAVERYSlaves being sold at an auction was prevalent throughout the Southern U.S. right up to the Civil War.More millionaires in the South than the North75% of the cotton harvest was done by plantations with10 or more slaves.Slave population grew from natural reproductionThere was a slave trade within the U.S.Facts on slavery
13Picture/Cotton Kingdom FACTS ON SLAVERYNo political or civil rights to protect slavesU.S. was the largest slave institution in the world by 1860U.S. produced 7/8’s of world’s cotton supplyPeculiar Institution, to own another human being is immoral.Cotton is King/King CottonSouth was not willing to changeAlways felt isolated and threatened from the rest of the U.S. (minority?)Picture/Cotton Kingdom
15% OF SOUTHERN WHITE FAMILIES OWNING SLAVES IN 1860 About 1,150,000 Southern white families owned no slaves---75%About 384,000 Southern white families owned 1 slave or more---25%(Number of slaves)Total of 1,534,000 Southern white families in 1860……A total population of 7,981,000….Chart: Total Deaths
16Statistically only 25% of Southern families owned slaves FACTS ON SLAVERYStatistically only 25% of Southern families owned slaves384,000 Southern families owned 1 or more slaves.75% of Southern families did not own slaves.
17So, what the hell happened? FACTS ON SLAVERYOut of the 25% of slaveowners, here is the breakdown of the number of slaves.75% owned 1 to 9 slaves.22% owned 10 to 49 owned slaves.3% owned 50 or more slaves.So, what the hell happened?384,000Chart/slave owners1860
18250 insurrections have been documented; between 1780 and 1864. SLAVE REVOLTSSlaves resorted to revolts in the 13 colonies and later in the southern U.S.250 insurrections have been documented; between 1780 and 1864.91 African-Americans were convicted of insurrection in Virginia alone.First revolt in what became the United States took place in 1526 at a Spanish settlement near the mouth of the Pee Dee River in South Carolina.
19Stono County Rebellion SLAVE REVOLTSStono County RebellionSeptember 9, 1739, twenty black Carolinians met near the Stono River, approximately twenty miles southwest of Charleston. They took guns and powder from a store and killed the two storekeepers they found there."With cries of 'Liberty' and beating of drums," "the rebels raised a standard and headed south toward Spanish St. Augustine. Burned houses, and killed white opponents.Largest slave uprising in the 13 colonies prior to the American Revolution.Slaveowners caught up with the band of 60 to 100 slaves. 20 white Carolinians and 40 black Carolinians were killed before the rebellion was suppressed.
20SLAVE REVOLTSSlaves resorted to revolts in the 13 colonies and later in the southern U.S.Gabriel ProsserDenmark VesseyNat Turner
21SLAVE REVOLTSGabriel Prosser, ( ), American leader of an aborted slave uprising, whose intention was to create a free black state in Virginia. Born near Richmond, he was the son of an African mother who instilled in him the love of freedom. Inspired perhaps by the success of the black revolutionaries of Haiti, he plotted with other slaves, notably Jack Bowler, in the spring of 1800 to seize the arsenal at Richmond and kill whites. On August 30, 1800, as many as 1000 armed slaves gathered outside Richmond ready for action. A torrential downpour and thunderstorm, however, washed away a bridge vital to the insurrectionists' march; at the same time Governor James Monroe, the future president, was informed of the plot and dispatched the state militia against them. Prosser and some 35 of his young comrades were captured and hanged.
22SLAVE REVOLTSThe leader of an American slave revolt in Charleston, S.C., Denmark Vesey, b. Africa, 1767, d. July 2, 1822, had been owned by a slave-ship captain before he purchased his freedom (1800) with $600 won in a street lottery. As a freedman in Charleston, he worked at carpentry, became a leader of his church, and read antislavery literature. Determined to strike a blow against the institution that had victimized him, he devised an intricate conspiracy for an uprising in Charleston and vicinity during the summer of Informers divulged the plot, however, and 35 blacks, including Vesey, were executed.
23Nat Turner Rebellion SLAVE REVOLTS Nat Turner, a slave owned by Joseph Travis of Southampton, Virginia, believed that he had been chosen by God to lead a slave rebellion. On 21st August, 1831, Turner and seven fellow slaves, murdered Travis and his family. Over the next two days and nights, Turner's band killed around 60 white people in Virginia. Turner had hoped that this action would cause a massive slave uprising but only 75 joined his rebellion. Over 3,000 members of the state militia were sent to deal with Turner's gang, and they were soon defeated. In retaliation, more than a hundred innocent slaves were killed. Turner went into hiding but was captured six weeks later. Nat Turner was executed on 11th November, 1831.
24Tree Nat Turner was hung on SLAVE REVOLTSArrest of Nat TurnerNat Turner RebellionTree Nat Turner was hung on
26Besides slave revolts, slaves resorted to other ways to revolt….. Wouldn’t work hard.Would sabotage equipment or break tools.Sometimes poisoned their master’s food.Tried to escapeThey controlled their labor; they were not “Sambo”
27SLAVE CODES AND LAWSSlave Revolts would lead plantation owners to develop a series of slave laws/codes which restricted the movement of the slaves.Slaves were not taught to read or writeRestricted to the plantationSlaves could not congregate after darkSlaves could not possess any type of firearmA larger slave plantation than white in some statesSlave owners wanted to keep their slaves ignorant of the outside world because learning about life beyond the plantation could lead to more slave revolts and wanting to escape.
28% of White to Black Population in 1860 FACTS ON SLAVERY% of White to Black Population in 1860
29Slave Codes of the State of Georgia, 1848 SLAVE CODES OR LAWSSlave Codes of the State of Georgia, 1848SEC. I. CAPITAL OFFENSES.1. Capital crimes when punished with death.The following shall be considered as capital offences, when committed by a slave or free person of color: insurrection, or an attempt to excite it; committing a rape, or attempting it on a free white female; murder of a free white person, or murder of a slave or free person of color, or poisoning of a human being; every and each of these offences shall, on conviction, be punished with death.
302. Punishment of free persons of color for encouraging slaves. SLAVE LAWSGeorgia Slave Code, 18482. Punishment of free persons of color for encouraging slaves.If any free person of color commits the offence of encouraging or enticing away any slave or slaves, for the purpose of, and with the intention to aid and assist such slave or slaves leaving the service of his or their owner or owners, or in going to another state, such person so offending shall, for each and every such offence, on conviction, be confined in the penitentiary at hard labor for one year.Slave Laws
313. Punishment for teaching slaves or free persons of color to read. SLAVE LAWSGeorgia Slave Code, 18483. Punishment for teaching slaves or free persons of color to read.If any slave, Negro, or free person of color, or any white person, shall teach any other slave, Negro, or free person of color, to read or write either written or printed characters, the said free person of color or slave shall be punished by fine and whipping, or fine or whipping, at the discretion of the court.
32Economically profitable Slavery was in the Bible ARGUMENTS FOR SLAVERYEconomically profitableSlavery was in the BibleDuty of Southerners to Christianize the slaves, Positive GoodProvided a better life for slaves than in Africa, Positive Good5th Amendment legalized and protected slavery because slaves were considered property.Trump Card: slavery meant that poor whites weren’t the lowest on the totem pole
33ABOLITIONIST ARGUMENTS Abolitionists believed slavery was immoral…..Peculiar institution or it is odd, strange or weird to own another human being.Abolitionists argued slavery was immoral because it violated the ideals that this country was founded on.All men are created equal (Dec. of Indep.)If the U.S. was to succeed as a democratic society, slavery had to be abolishedAbolitionists
34ABOLITIONISTSThrough his newspaper, The Liberator, William Lloyd Garrison spoke out against slavery and for the rights of black Americans for 35 years. The tone of the paper was established in the first issue of the paper with Garrison's editorial entitled, "To the Public,”“On this subject, I do not wish to think, or speak, or write, with moderation. No! no! Tell a man whose house is on fire, to give a moderate alarm; tell him to moderately rescue his wife from the hand of the ravisher; tell the mother to gradually extricate her babe from the fire into which it has fallen; -- but urge me not to use moderation in a cause like the present. I am in earnest -- I will not equivocate -- I will not excuse -- I will not retreat a single inch -- AND I WILL BE HEARD”.Garrison, a leader among American abolitionists, delivered his views with great conviction, as well as great foresight. "Posterity," he concluded in the editorial, "will bear testimony that I was right
35Mother was a slave and father was white Great speaker against slavery ABOLITIONISTSEscaped slave in 1838Mother was a slave and father was whiteGreat speaker against slaveryBought his freedom for $600.00Wrote his autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick DouglassEditor of the North Star--Abolitionist paperFriends with GarrisonOrganized the 54th Black Regiment of Mass. (Civil War)Picture/DouglassFrederick Douglas
36Picture/Tubman Harriet Tubman, Moses of her people. ABOLITIONISTSHarriet Tubman, Moses of her people.Led over 300 escaped slaves out of the South during the 1850’s.$40,000 bounty was placed on her headConductor of the Underground RailroadSupplied money from abolitionists.Picture/Tubman
38FUGITIVE SLAVE LAWFugitive Slave Law was made law at the Constitutional Convention in 1787 as a compromise between the North/South.Any escaped slaves captured in the North or free state had to be returned to their plantation owner.Unpopular in the North and led to the creation of the Underground Railroad.Southerners became bitter towards the North because they refused to enforce it.
39FOLLOW THE DRINKING GOURD Follow the drinking gourd, Follow the drinking gourd, For the old man is a-waiting for to take you to freedom, If you follow the drinking gourdThe riverbank will make a very good road, The dead trees show you the way, Left foot, peg foot, traveling on, Follow the drinking gourdThe river ends between two hills, Follow the drinking gourd, There’s another river on the other side, Follow the drinking gourd.Where the great big river meets the little river, Follow the drinking gourd, The old man is a-waiting for to take you to freedom, If you follow the drinking gourd.Drinking Gourd
40Book was used as propaganda to show the inhumanity of slavery. ABOLITIONISTSHarriet Beecher Stowe, Abolitionist, authored the book Uncle Tom’s Cabin – “So, you’re the little lady who caused this war.”Book was used as propaganda to show the inhumanity of slavery.Southerners were enraged by this book and called it “lies”.Picture/Stowe
41Abolitionist and transcendentalist ABOLITIONISTSAbolitionist and transcendentalistRefused to pay a tax and spent a night in jail because the tax supported a war that was fought for slaveryMexican WarBeliever in Civil Disobedience or passive resistance---protest with non-violent actionsSpent a night in jail over the Mexican War….Nice beard, Thoreau!