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THE ROAD TO THE CIVIL WAR

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1 THE ROAD TO THE CIVIL WAR
1. SOUTHERN SLAVERY THE PECULIAR INSTITUTION Prior to 1791 slavery was not profitable Cotton Gin----Eli Whitney South relied on cotton and slaves. Cotton production doubles every 10 years King Cotton 2. Southern society 3. Facts on Slavery 4. Why did the South fight a war to preserve slavery when ¾ of Southerner’s did not own slaves? American Dream

2 5. SOCIAL OUTCRY AGAINST SLAVERY
Rise of abolitionists to 1860 William Lloyd Garrison Frederick Douglass Harriet Tubman Harriet Beecher Stowe Arguments For slavery Against slavery 6. Did slaves revolt against slavery? Slave revolts Slave codes

3 C O T T O N P R O D U C T I O N The invention which changed the South, cotton and slavery. 1791: 4,000 bales of cotton are produced 1849: 2, 246, 900 bales of cotton are produced 6 cents a lb. to 14 cents in 1857 Expanded into Arkansas and Texas Crop increase: 2,500,000 bales in 1850 to 5,300,000 in 1860 Crop Value: In 1800, $8 million: In 1860, $250 million Tobacco by 1860 : 200,000,000 lbs. to 430,000,000 lbs.

4 Whitney Ends the Fiber Famine
Cotton gin invented in 1793 50 times more effective than hand picking Raising cotton more profitable South needs slavery more than ever for “King Cotton” New England factories flourish with Southern cotton

5 Effects Cotton Gin Increased exports for the South
Planters became rich Cotton Gin Increased demand for slaves

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10 Slaves Using the Cotton Gin

11 GROWTH OF SLAVERY Total U.S. population was 3.5 million…
700,000 slaves in the U.S. at this time. Still bought slaves through the slave trade.

12 GROWTH OF SLAVERY Total U.S. population was 18 million
2 million slaves in the U.S. at this time. 1808, importation of slaves was illegal Slave trade within the U.S. Increase of slave population was from natural reproduction

13 33 million U.S. population, 4 million slaves in the South
GROWTH OF SLAVERY 33 million U.S. population, 4 million slaves in the South

14 COTTON BELT, Cotton Kingdom
GROWTH OF SLAVERY COTTON BELT, Cotton Kingdom Map Crops in South

15 COTTON BELT, Cotton Kingdom
GROWTH OF SLAVERY COTTON BELT, Cotton Kingdom Map/Cotton Belt

16 SOUTHERN SOCIETY Plantation owners Aristocracy
Southern society was similar to a Feudal system that existed in Europe during the Dark and Middle Ages…..(Manorial System) Caste system and difficult to move up the social ladder. Based on white supremacy and the slave was inferior. Plantation owners Aristocracy Upper class Owned some slaves. Achieve American Dream Middle Class Small farmers Owned no slaves….Hated white upper class…American Dream Poor Whites Free Blacks, 2nd class citizens No political or civil rights. Slaves---no rights, considered property

17 Characteristics of the Antebellum South
Primarily agrarian. Economic power shifted from the “upper South” to the “lower South.” “Cotton Is King!” * > 5 mil. bales a yr (57% of total US exports). Very slow development of industrialization. Rudimentary financial system. Inadequate transportation system.

18 FACTS ON SLAVERY Conditions on a slave ship were horrible. This was called the Middle Passage. At the Constitutional Convention 3/5’s Compromise 1807, imported slaves was abolished in the U.S. Fugitive Slave Law 90% of Europe’s cotton came from the South by 1860 1/2 of U.S. exports were from cotton More money invested in slaves than land and tools---$2 billion

19 More slaves you had the greater social status
FACTS ON SLAVERY More slaves you had the greater social status 2/3’s of presidents since independence were slaveowners Majority of Supreme Court justices were from the South

20 More millionaires in the South than the North
FACTS ON SLAVERY Slaves being sold at an auction was prevalent throughout the Southern U.S. right up to the Civil War. More millionaires in the South than the North 75% of the cotton harvest was done by plantations with10 or more slaves. Slave population grew from natural reproduction There was a slave trade within the U.S. Facts on slavery

21 No political or civil rights to protect slaves
FACTS ON SLAVERY No political or civil rights to protect slaves U.S. was the largest slave institution in the world by 1860 U.S. produced 7/8’s of world’s cotton supply Peculiar Institution, to own another human being is immoral. Cotton is King/King Cotton South was not willing to change Always felt isolated and threatened from the rest of the U.S.

22 FACTS ON SLAVERY Chart/Total slaves

23 Chart/Life expectancy
FACTS ON SLAVERY Life Expectancy of Working Men, 1830 to 1920 Chart/Life expectancy

24 % of White to Black Population in 1860
FACTS ON SLAVERY % of White to Black Population in 1860 Chart/Net Earnings

25 % OF SOUTHERN WHITE FAMILIES OWNING SLAVES IN 1860
About 1,150,000 Southern white families owned no slaves---75% About 384,000 Southern white families owned 1 slave or more---25% (Number of slaves) Total of 1,534,000 Southern white families in 1860……A total population of 7,981,000…. Chart: Total Deaths

26 Statistically only 25% of Southern families owned slaves
FACTS ON SLAVERY Statistically only 25% of Southern families owned slaves 384,000 Southern families owned 1 or more slaves. 75% of Southern families did not own slaves.

27 FACTS ON SLAVERY Out of the 25% of slaveowners, here is the breakdown of the number of slaves. 75% owned 1 to 9 slaves. 22% owned 10 to 49 owned slaves. 3% owned 50 or more slaves. 384,000 Chart/slave owners 1860

28 Slave Accoutrements Slave Master Brands Slave muzzle

29 Slave Accoutrements Slave leg irons Slave tag, SC Slave shoes

30 Slaves posing in front of their cabin on a Southern plantation.

31 Slave Resistance & Uprisings

32 Slave Resistance “SAMBO” pattern of behavior used as a charade in front of whites [the innocent, laughing black man caricature – bulging eyes, thick lips, big smile, etc.].

33 Slave Resistance Refusal to work hard. Isolated acts of sabotage.
Escape via the Underground Railroad.

34 Runaway Slave Ads

35 Quilt Patterns as Secret Messages
The Monkey Wrench pattern, on the left, alerted escapees to gather up tools and prepare to flee; the Drunkard Path design, on the right, warned escapees not to follow a straight route.

36 250 insurrections have been documented; between 1780 and 1864.
SLAVE REVOLTS Slaves resorted to revolts in the 13 colonies and later in the southern U.S. 250 insurrections have been documented; between 1780 and 1864. 91 African-Americans were convicted of insurrection in Virginia alone. First revolt in what became the United States took place in 1526 at a Spanish settlement near the mouth of the Pee Dee River in South Carolina.

37 Stono County Rebellion
SLAVE REVOLTS Stono County Rebellion September 9, 1739, twenty black Carolinians met near the Stono River, approximately twenty miles southwest of Charleston. They took guns and powder from a store and killed the two storekeepers they found there. "With cries of 'Liberty' and beating of drums," "the rebels raised a standard and headed south toward Spanish St. Augustine . Burned houses, and killed white opponents. Largest slave uprising in the 13 colonies prior to the American Revolution. Slaveowners caught up with the band of 60 to 100 slaves. 20 white Carolinians and 40 black Carolinians were killed before the rebellion was suppressed.

38 SLAVE REVOLTS Slaves resorted to revolts in the 13 colonies and later in the southern U.S. Gabriel Prosser Denmark Vessey Nat Turner

39 SLAVE REVOLTS Gabriel Prosser, ( ), American leader of an aborted slave uprising, whose intention was to create a free black state in Virginia. Born near Richmond, he was the son of an African mother who instilled in him the love of freedom. Inspired perhaps by the success of the black revolutionaries of Haiti, he plotted with other slaves, notably Jack Bowler, in the spring of 1800 to seize the arsenal at Richmond and kill whites. On August 30, 1800, as many as 1000 armed slaves gathered outside Richmond ready for action. A torrential downpour and thunderstorm, however, washed away a bridge vital to the insurrectionists' march; at the same time Governor James Monroe, the future president, was informed of the plot and dispatched the state militia against them. Prosser and some 35 of his young comrades were captured and hanged.

40 SLAVE REVOLTS The leader of an American slave revolt in Charleston, S.C., Denmark Vesey, b. Africa, 1767, d. July 2, 1822, had been owned by a slave-ship captain before he purchased his freedom (1800) with $600 won in a street lottery. As a freedman in Charleston, he worked at carpentry, became a leader of his church, and read antislavery literature. Determined to strike a blow against the institution that had victimized him, he devised an intricate conspiracy for an uprising in Charleston and vicinity during the summer of Informers divulged the plot, however, and 35 blacks, including Vesey, were executed.

41 Nat Turner Rebellion SLAVE REVOLTS
Nat Turner, a slave owned by Joseph Travis of Southampton, Virginia, believed that he had been chosen by God to lead a slave rebellion. On 21st August, 1831, Turner and seven fellow slaves, murdered Travis and his family. Over the next two days and nights, Turner's band killed around 60 white people in Virginia. Turner had hoped that this action would cause a massive slave uprising but only 75 joined his rebellion. Over 3,000 members of the state militia were sent to deal with Turner's gang, and they were soon defeated. In retaliation, more than a hundred innocent slaves were killed. Turner went into hiding but was captured six weeks later. Nat Turner was executed on 11th November, 1831.

42 Tree Nat Turner was hung on
SLAVE REVOLTS Arrest of Nat Turner Nat Turner Rebellion Tree Nat Turner was hung on Slave Revolts/Turner

43 SLAVE REVOLTS Slave Revolts

44 Besides slave revolts, slaves resorted to other ways to revolt…..
Wouldn’t work hard. Would sabotage equipment or break tools. Sometimes poisoned their master’s food. Tried to escape

45 SLAVE CODES AND LAWS Slave Revolts would lead plantation owners to develop a series of slave laws/codes which restricted the movement of the slaves. Slaves were not taught to read or write Restricted to the plantation Slaves could not congregate after dark Slaves could not possess any type of firearm A larger slave plantation than white in some states Slave owners wanted to keep their slaves ignorant of the outside world because learning about life beyond the plantation could lead to more slave revolts and wanting to escape. Slave Laws

46 Slave Codes of the State of Georgia, 1848
SLAVE CODES OR LAWS Slave Codes of the State of Georgia, 1848 SEC. I. CAPITAL OFFENSES. 1. Capital crimes when punished with death. The following shall be considered as capital offences, when committed by a slave or free person of color: insurrection, or an attempt to excite it; committing a rape, or attempting it on a free white female; murder of a free white person, or murder of a slave or free person of color, or poisoning of a human being; every and each of these offences shall, on conviction, be punished with death.

47 2. Punishment of free persons of color for encouraging slaves.
SLAVE LAWS Georgia Slave Code, 1848 2. Punishment of free persons of color for encouraging slaves. If any free person of color commits the offence of encouraging or enticing away any slave or slaves, for the purpose of, and with the intention to aid and assist such slave or slaves leaving the service of his or their owner or owners, or in going to another state, such person so offending shall, for each and every such offence, on conviction, be confined in the penitentiary at hard labor for one year.

48 3. Punishment for teaching slaves or free persons of color to read.
SLAVE LAWS Georgia Slave Code, 1848 3. Punishment for teaching slaves or free persons of color to read. If any slave, Negro, or free person of color, or any white person, shall teach any other slave, Negro, or free person of color, to read or write either written or printed characters, the said free person of color or slave shall be punished by fine and whipping, or fine or whipping, at the discretion of the court.

49 Abolitionist Movement
1816  American Colonization Society created (gradual, voluntary emancipation. British Colonization Society symbol

50 Abolitionist Movement
Create a free slave state in Liberia, West Africa. No real anti-slavery sentiment in the North in the 1820s & 1830s. Gradualists Immediatists

51 Anti-Slavery Alphabet

52 Anti-Slave Pamphlet

53 ABOLITIONIST ARGUMENTS
Abolitionists believed slavery was immoral…..Peculiar institution or it is odd, strange or weird to own another human being. Abolitionists argued slavery was immoral because it violated the ideals that this country was founded on. All men are created equal (DOI) If the U.S. was to succeed as a democratic society, slavery had to be abolished Abolitionists

54 Abolitionism: Division and Opposition
Abolitionism forced the churches to face the question of slavery head-on, and in the 1840s the Methodist and Baptist churches each split into northern and southern organizations over the issue of slavery Even the abolitionists themselves splintered More conservative reformers wanted to work within established institutions, using churches and political action to end slavery

55 William Lloyd Garrison (1801-1879)
Slavery & Masonry undermined republican values. Immediate emancipation with NO compensation. Slavery was a moral, not an economic issue. R2-4

56 ABOLITIONISTS Through his newspaper, The Liberator, William Lloyd Garrison spoke out against slavery and for the rights of black Americans for 35 years. The tone of the paper was established in the first issue of the paper with Garrison's editorial entitled, "To the Public,” “On this subject, I do not wish to think, or speak, or write, with moderation. No! no! Tell a man whose house is on fire, to give a moderate alarm; tell him to moderately rescue his wife from the hand of the ravisher; tell the mother to gradually extricate her babe from the fire into which it has fallen; -- but urge me not to use moderation in a cause like the present. I am in earnest -- I will not equivocate -- I will not excuse -- I will not retreat a single inch -- AND I WILL BE HEARD”. Garrison, a leader among American abolitionists, delivered his views with great conviction, as well as great foresight. "Posterity," he concluded in the editorial, "will bear testimony that I was right Picture/Garrison

57 Premiere issue  January 1, 1831
The Liberator Premiere issue  January 1, 1831 R2-5

58 Black Abolitionists David Walker (1785-1830)
1829  Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World Fight for freedom rather than wait to be set free by whites.

59 Mother was a slave and father was white Great speaker against slavery
ABOLITIONISTS Escaped slave in 1838 Mother was a slave and father was white Great speaker against slavery Bought his freedom for $600.00 Wrote his autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass Editor of the North Star--Abolitionist paper Friends with Garrison Organized the 54th Black Regiment of Mass Picture/Douglass Frederick Douglas

60 ABOLITIONISTS After hearing Frederick Douglass speak in Bristol, England, in 1846, Mary A. Estlin wrote to an American abolitionist: “There is but one opinion of him. Wherever he goes he arouses sympathy in your cause and love for himself…..Our expectations were highly roused by his narrative, his printed speeches, and the eulogisms of the friends with whom he has been staying: but he far exceeds the picture we had formed both in outward graces, intellectual power and culture and eloquence.” Reading/On Douglass

61 Sojourner Truth (1787-1883) or Isabella Baumfree
1850  The Narrative of Sojourner Truth R2-10

62 Harriet Tubman (1820-1913) “Moses” Helped over 300 slaves to freedom.
$40,000 bounty on her head. Served as a Union spy during the Civil War. “Moses”

63 Book was used as propaganda to show the inhumanity of slavery.
ABOLITIONISTS Harriet Beecher Stowe, Abolitionist, authored the book Uncle Tom’s Cabin Book was used as propaganda to show the inhumanity of slavery. Southerners were enraged by this book and called it “lies”. Picture/Stowe

64 Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 Sold 300,000 copies in the first year.
2 million in a decade!

65 In the closing scenes of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel, Uncle Tom’s brutal master, Simon Legree, orders the $ slave savagely beaten (to death) by two fellow slaves. Through tears and blood Tom exclaims, “No! no! no! my soul ain’t yours Mas’r! You haven’t bought it-----ye can’t buy it! It’s been bought and paid for by One that is able to keep it. No matter, no mater, you can’t harm me!” “I can’t” said Legree, with a sneer; “we’ll see----we’ll see! Here, Sambo, Quimbo, give this dog such a breakin’ in as he won’t get over this month!” Reading/Tom’s Cabin

66 Economically profitable Slavery was in the Bible
ARGUMENTS FOR SLAVERY Economically profitable Slavery was in the Bible Duty of Southerners to Christianize the slaves, Positive Good Provided a better life for slaves than in Africa, Positive Good 5th Amendment legalized and protected slavery because slaves were considered property.

67 Southern Pro-Slavery Propaganda

68 The rule was renewed in each Congress between 1837 and 1839.
Gag rule was passed in Congress which nothing concerning slavery could be discussed. Under the gag rule, anti-slavery petitions were not read on the floor of Congress The rule was renewed in each Congress between 1837 and 1839. In 1840 the House passed an even stricter rule, which refused to accept all anti-slavery petition. On December 3, 1844, the gag rule was repealed


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