Presentation on theme: "THE ROAD TO THE CIVIL WAR"— Presentation transcript:
1THE ROAD TO THE CIVIL WAR 1. SOUTHERN SLAVERY THE PECULIAR INSTITUTIONPrior to 1791 slavery was not profitableCotton Gin----Eli WhitneySouth relied on cotton and slaves.Cotton production doubles every 10 yearsKing Cotton2. Southern society3. Facts on Slavery4. Why did the South fight a war to preserve slavery when ¾ of Southerner’s did not own slaves?American Dream
25. SOCIAL OUTCRY AGAINST SLAVERY Rise of abolitionists to 1860William Lloyd GarrisonFrederick DouglassHarriet TubmanHarriet Beecher StoweArgumentsFor slaveryAgainst slavery6. Did slaves revolt against slavery?Slave revolts Slave codes
3C O T T O N P R O D U C T I O NThe invention which changed the South, cotton and slavery.1791: 4,000 bales of cotton are produced1849: 2, 246, 900 bales of cotton are produced6 cents a lb. to 14 cents in 1857Expanded into Arkansas and TexasCrop increase: 2,500,000 bales in 1850 to 5,300,000 in 1860Crop Value: In 1800, $8 million: In 1860, $250 millionTobacco by 1860 : 200,000,000 lbs. to 430,000,000 lbs.
4Whitney Ends the Fiber Famine Cotton gin invented in 179350 times more effective than hand pickingRaising cotton more profitableSouth needs slavery more than ever for “King Cotton”New England factories flourish with Southern cotton
5Effects Cotton Gin Increased exports for the South Planters became richCotton GinIncreased demand for slaves
11GROWTH OF SLAVERY Total U.S. population was 3.5 million… 700,000 slaves in the U.S. at this time.Still bought slaves through the slave trade.
12GROWTH OF SLAVERY Total U.S. population was 18 million 2 million slaves in the U.S. at this time.1808, importation of slaves was illegalSlave trade within the U.S.Increase of slave population was from natural reproduction
1333 million U.S. population, 4 million slaves in the South GROWTH OF SLAVERY33 million U.S. population, 4 million slaves in the South
14COTTON BELT, Cotton Kingdom GROWTH OF SLAVERYCOTTON BELT, Cotton KingdomMap Crops in South
15COTTON BELT, Cotton Kingdom GROWTH OF SLAVERYCOTTON BELT, Cotton KingdomMap/Cotton Belt
16SOUTHERN SOCIETY Plantation owners Aristocracy Southern society was similar to a Feudal system that existed in Europe during the Dark and Middle Ages…..(Manorial System)Caste system and difficult to move up the social ladder.Based on white supremacy and the slave was inferior.Plantation owners AristocracyUpper classOwned some slaves. Achieve American DreamMiddle Class Small farmersOwned no slaves….Hated white upper class…American DreamPoor WhitesFree Blacks, 2nd class citizensNo political or civil rights.Slaves---no rights, considered property
17Characteristics of the Antebellum South Primarily agrarian.Economic power shifted from the “upper South” to the “lower South.”“Cotton Is King!” * > 5 mil. bales a yr (57% of total US exports).Very slow development of industrialization.Rudimentary financial system.Inadequate transportation system.
18FACTS ON SLAVERYConditions on a slave ship were horrible. This was called the Middle Passage.At the Constitutional Convention3/5’s Compromise1807, imported slaves was abolished in the U.S.Fugitive Slave Law90% of Europe’s cotton came from the South by 18601/2 of U.S. exports were from cottonMore money invested in slaves than land and tools---$2 billion
19More slaves you had the greater social status FACTS ON SLAVERYMore slaves you had the greater social status2/3’s of presidents since independence were slaveownersMajority of Supreme Court justices were from the South
20More millionaires in the South than the North FACTS ON SLAVERYSlaves being sold at an auction was prevalent throughout the Southern U.S. right up to the Civil War.More millionaires in the South than the North75% of the cotton harvest was done by plantations with10 or more slaves.Slave population grew from natural reproductionThere was a slave trade within the U.S.Facts on slavery
21No political or civil rights to protect slaves FACTS ON SLAVERYNo political or civil rights to protect slavesU.S. was the largest slave institution in the world by 1860U.S. produced 7/8’s of world’s cotton supplyPeculiar Institution, to own another human being is immoral.Cotton is King/King CottonSouth was not willing to changeAlways felt isolated and threatened from the rest of the U.S.
23Chart/Life expectancy FACTS ON SLAVERYLife Expectancy of Working Men, 1830 to 1920Chart/Life expectancy
24% of White to Black Population in 1860 FACTS ON SLAVERY% of White to Black Population in 1860Chart/Net Earnings
25% OF SOUTHERN WHITE FAMILIES OWNING SLAVES IN 1860 About 1,150,000 Southern white families owned no slaves---75%About 384,000 Southern white families owned 1 slave or more---25%(Number of slaves)Total of 1,534,000 Southern white families in 1860……A total population of 7,981,000….Chart: Total Deaths
26Statistically only 25% of Southern families owned slaves FACTS ON SLAVERYStatistically only 25% of Southern families owned slaves384,000 Southern families owned 1 or more slaves.75% of Southern families did not own slaves.
27FACTS ON SLAVERYOut of the 25% of slaveowners, here is the breakdown of the number of slaves.75% owned 1 to 9 slaves.22% owned 10 to 49 owned slaves.3% owned 50 or more slaves.384,000Chart/slave owners1860
35Quilt Patterns as Secret Messages The Monkey Wrench pattern, on the left, alerted escapees to gather up tools and prepare to flee; the Drunkard Path design, on the right, warned escapees not to follow a straight route.
36250 insurrections have been documented; between 1780 and 1864. SLAVE REVOLTSSlaves resorted to revolts in the 13 colonies and later in the southern U.S.250 insurrections have been documented; between 1780 and 1864.91 African-Americans were convicted of insurrection in Virginia alone.First revolt in what became the United States took place in 1526 at a Spanish settlement near the mouth of the Pee Dee River in South Carolina.
37Stono County Rebellion SLAVE REVOLTSStono County RebellionSeptember 9, 1739, twenty black Carolinians met near the Stono River, approximately twenty miles southwest of Charleston. They took guns and powder from a store and killed the two storekeepers they found there."With cries of 'Liberty' and beating of drums," "the rebels raised a standard and headed south toward Spanish St. Augustine . Burned houses, and killed white opponents.Largest slave uprising in the 13 colonies prior to the American Revolution.Slaveowners caught up with the band of 60 to 100 slaves. 20 white Carolinians and 40 black Carolinians were killed before the rebellion was suppressed.
38SLAVE REVOLTSSlaves resorted to revolts in the 13 colonies and later in the southern U.S.Gabriel ProsserDenmark VesseyNat Turner
39SLAVE REVOLTSGabriel Prosser, ( ), American leader of an aborted slave uprising, whose intention was to create a free black state in Virginia. Born near Richmond, he was the son of an African mother who instilled in him the love of freedom. Inspired perhaps by the success of the black revolutionaries of Haiti, he plotted with other slaves, notably Jack Bowler, in the spring of 1800 to seize the arsenal at Richmond and kill whites. On August 30, 1800, as many as 1000 armed slaves gathered outside Richmond ready for action. A torrential downpour and thunderstorm, however, washed away a bridge vital to the insurrectionists' march; at the same time Governor James Monroe, the future president, was informed of the plot and dispatched the state militia against them. Prosser and some 35 of his young comrades were captured and hanged.
40SLAVE REVOLTSThe leader of an American slave revolt in Charleston, S.C., Denmark Vesey, b. Africa, 1767, d. July 2, 1822, had been owned by a slave-ship captain before he purchased his freedom (1800) with $600 won in a street lottery. As a freedman in Charleston, he worked at carpentry, became a leader of his church, and read antislavery literature. Determined to strike a blow against the institution that had victimized him, he devised an intricate conspiracy for an uprising in Charleston and vicinity during the summer of Informers divulged the plot, however, and 35 blacks, including Vesey, were executed.
41Nat Turner Rebellion SLAVE REVOLTS Nat Turner, a slave owned by Joseph Travis of Southampton, Virginia, believed that he had been chosen by God to lead a slave rebellion. On 21st August, 1831, Turner and seven fellow slaves, murdered Travis and his family. Over the next two days and nights, Turner's band killed around 60 white people in Virginia. Turner had hoped that this action would cause a massive slave uprising but only 75 joined his rebellion. Over 3,000 members of the state militia were sent to deal with Turner's gang, and they were soon defeated. In retaliation, more than a hundred innocent slaves were killed. Turner went into hiding but was captured six weeks later. Nat Turner was executed on 11th November, 1831.
42Tree Nat Turner was hung on SLAVE REVOLTSArrest of Nat TurnerNat Turner RebellionTree Nat Turner was hung onSlave Revolts/Turner
44Besides slave revolts, slaves resorted to other ways to revolt….. Wouldn’t work hard.Would sabotage equipment or break tools.Sometimes poisoned their master’s food.Tried to escape
45SLAVE CODES AND LAWSSlave Revolts would lead plantation owners to develop a series of slave laws/codes which restricted the movement of the slaves.Slaves were not taught to read or writeRestricted to the plantationSlaves could not congregate after darkSlaves could not possess any type of firearmA larger slave plantation than white in some statesSlave owners wanted to keep their slaves ignorant of the outside world because learning about life beyond the plantation could lead to more slave revolts and wanting to escape.Slave Laws
46Slave Codes of the State of Georgia, 1848 SLAVE CODES OR LAWSSlave Codes of the State of Georgia, 1848SEC. I. CAPITAL OFFENSES.1. Capital crimes when punished with death.The following shall be considered as capital offences, when committed by a slave or free person of color: insurrection, or an attempt to excite it; committing a rape, or attempting it on a free white female; murder of a free white person, or murder of a slave or free person of color, or poisoning of a human being; every and each of these offences shall, on conviction, be punished with death.
472. Punishment of free persons of color for encouraging slaves. SLAVE LAWSGeorgia Slave Code, 18482. Punishment of free persons of color for encouraging slaves.If any free person of color commits the offence of encouraging or enticing away any slave or slaves, for the purpose of, and with the intention to aid and assist such slave or slaves leaving the service of his or their owner or owners, or in going to another state, such person so offending shall, for each and every such offence, on conviction, be confined in the penitentiary at hard labor for one year.
483. Punishment for teaching slaves or free persons of color to read. SLAVE LAWSGeorgia Slave Code, 18483. Punishment for teaching slaves or free persons of color to read.If any slave, Negro, or free person of color, or any white person, shall teach any other slave, Negro, or free person of color, to read or write either written or printed characters, the said free person of color or slave shall be punished by fine and whipping, or fine or whipping, at the discretion of the court.
49Abolitionist Movement 1816 American Colonization Society created (gradual, voluntary emancipation.British Colonization Society symbol
50Abolitionist Movement Create a free slave state in Liberia, West Africa.No real anti-slavery sentiment in the North in the 1820s & 1830s.GradualistsImmediatists
53ABOLITIONIST ARGUMENTS Abolitionists believed slavery was immoral…..Peculiar institution or it is odd, strange or weird to own another human being.Abolitionists argued slavery was immoral because it violated the ideals that this country was founded on.All men are created equal (DOI)If the U.S. was to succeed as a democratic society, slavery had to be abolishedAbolitionists
54Abolitionism: Division and Opposition Abolitionism forced the churches to face the question of slavery head-on, and in the 1840s the Methodist and Baptist churches each split into northern and southern organizations over the issue of slaveryEven the abolitionists themselves splinteredMore conservative reformers wanted to work within established institutions, using churches and political action to end slavery
55William Lloyd Garrison (1801-1879) Slavery & Masonry undermined republican values.Immediate emancipation with NO compensation.Slavery was a moral, not an economic issue.R2-4
56ABOLITIONISTSThrough his newspaper, The Liberator, William Lloyd Garrison spoke out against slavery and for the rights of black Americans for 35 years. The tone of the paper was established in the first issue of the paper with Garrison's editorial entitled, "To the Public,”“On this subject, I do not wish to think, or speak, or write, with moderation. No! no! Tell a man whose house is on fire, to give a moderate alarm; tell him to moderately rescue his wife from the hand of the ravisher; tell the mother to gradually extricate her babe from the fire into which it has fallen; -- but urge me not to use moderation in a cause like the present. I am in earnest -- I will not equivocate -- I will not excuse -- I will not retreat a single inch -- AND I WILL BE HEARD”.Garrison, a leader among American abolitionists, delivered his views with great conviction, as well as great foresight. "Posterity," he concluded in the editorial, "will bear testimony that I was rightPicture/Garrison
57Premiere issue January 1, 1831 The LiberatorPremiere issue January 1, 1831R2-5
58Black Abolitionists David Walker (1785-1830) 1829 Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the WorldFight for freedom rather than wait to be set free by whites.
59Mother was a slave and father was white Great speaker against slavery ABOLITIONISTSEscaped slave in 1838Mother was a slave and father was whiteGreat speaker against slaveryBought his freedom for $600.00Wrote his autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick DouglassEditor of the North Star--Abolitionist paperFriends with GarrisonOrganized the 54th Black Regiment of MassPicture/DouglassFrederick Douglas
60ABOLITIONISTSAfter hearing Frederick Douglass speak in Bristol, England, in 1846, Mary A. Estlin wrote to an American abolitionist:“There is but one opinion of him. Wherever he goes he arouses sympathy in your cause and love for himself…..Our expectations were highly roused by his narrative, his printed speeches, and the eulogisms of the friends with whom he has been staying: but he far exceeds the picture we had formed both in outward graces, intellectual power and culture and eloquence.”Reading/On Douglass
61Sojourner Truth (1787-1883) or Isabella Baumfree 1850 The Narrative of Sojourner TruthR2-10
62Harriet Tubman (1820-1913) “Moses” Helped over 300 slaves to freedom. $40,000 bounty on her head.Served as a Union spy during the Civil War.“Moses”
63Book was used as propaganda to show the inhumanity of slavery. ABOLITIONISTSHarriet Beecher Stowe, Abolitionist, authored the book Uncle Tom’s CabinBook was used as propaganda to show the inhumanity of slavery.Southerners were enraged by this book and called it “lies”.Picture/Stowe
64Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 Sold 300,000 copies in the first year. 2 million in a decade!
65In the closing scenes of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel, Uncle Tom’s brutal master, Simon Legree, orders the $ slave savagely beaten (to death) by two fellow slaves. Through tears and blood Tom exclaims,“No! no! no! my soul ain’t yours Mas’r! You haven’t bought it-----ye can’t buy it! It’s been bought and paid for by One that is able to keep it. No matter, no mater, you can’t harm me!” “I can’t” said Legree, with a sneer; “we’ll see----we’ll see! Here, Sambo, Quimbo, give this dog such a breakin’ in as he won’t get over this month!”Reading/Tom’s Cabin
66Economically profitable Slavery was in the Bible ARGUMENTS FOR SLAVERYEconomically profitableSlavery was in the BibleDuty of Southerners to Christianize the slaves, Positive GoodProvided a better life for slaves than in Africa, Positive Good5th Amendment legalized and protected slavery because slaves were considered property.
68The rule was renewed in each Congress between 1837 and 1839. Gag rule was passed in Congress which nothing concerning slavery could be discussed.Under the gag rule, anti-slavery petitions were not read on the floor of CongressThe rule was renewed in each Congress between 1837 and 1839.In 1840 the House passed an even stricter rule, which refused to accept all anti-slavery petition. On December 3, 1844, the gag rule was repealed