The South and the Slavery Controversy Chapter 16
1791: 4,000 bales of cotton are produced 1849: 2, 246, 900 bales of cotton are produced 6 cents a lb. to 14 cents in 1857 Expanded into Arkansas and Texas Crop increase: 2,500,000 bales in 1850 to 5,300,000 in 1860 Crop Value: In 1800, $8 million: In 1860, $250 million The invention which changed the South, cotton and slavery.
Whitney Ends the Fiber Famine Cotton gin invented in 1793 –50 times more effective than hand picking Raising cotton more profitable –South needs slavery more than ever for “King Cotton” HNew England factories flourish with Southern cotton
Cotton Gin Increased exports for the South Planters became rich Increased demand for slaves Effects
Total U.S. population was 3.5 million… 700,000 slaves in the U.S. at this time. Still bought slaves through the slave trade.
Total U.S. population was 18 million 2 million slaves in the U.S. at this time. 1808, importation of slaves was illegal Slave trade within the U.S. Increase of slave population was from natural reproduction
33 million U.S. population, 4 million slaves in the South
Southern society was similar to a Feudal system that existed in Europe during the Dark and Middle Ages…..(Manorial System) Southern society was similar to a Feudal system that existed in Europe during the Dark and Middle Ages…..(Manorial System) Caste system: difficult to move up the social ladder. Caste system: difficult to move up the social ladder. Based on white supremacy and the slave was inferior. Based on white supremacy and the slave was inferior. Plantation owners Aristocracy Middle Class Small farmers Poor Whites Free Blacks, 2 nd class citizens Slaves---no rights, considered property No political or civil rights. Upper class Owned some slaves. Achieve American Dream Owned no slaves….Hated white upper class…American Dream
Characteristics of the Antebellum South 1.Primarily agrarian. 2.Economic power shifted from the “upper South” to the “lower South.” 3.“Cotton Is King!” * 1860--> 5 mil. bales a yr. (57% of total US exports). 4.Very slow development of industrialization. 5.Rudimentary financial system. 6.Inadequate transportation system.
At the Constitutional ConventionAt the Constitutional Convention 3/5’s Compromise3/5’s Compromise 1807, imported slaves was abolished in the U.S.1807, imported slaves was abolished in the U.S. Fugitive Slave LawFugitive Slave Law 90% of Europe’s cotton came from the South by 186090% of Europe’s cotton came from the South by 1860 1/2 of U.S. exports were from cotton1/2 of U.S. exports were from cotton More money invested in slaves than land and tools---$2 billionMore money invested in slaves than land and tools---$2 billion Conditions on a slave ship were horrible. This was called the Middle Passage.
The more slaves you had, the greater your social status 2/3’s of presidents since independence were slaveowners Majority of Supreme Court justices were from the South
More millionaires in the South than the NorthMore millionaires in the South than the North 75% of the cotton harvest was done by plantations with10 or more slaves.75% of the cotton harvest was done by plantations with10 or more slaves. Slave population grew from natural reproductionSlave population grew from natural reproduction There was a slave trade within the U.S.There was a slave trade within the U.S. Facts on slavery Slaves being sold at an auction was prevalent throughout the Southern U.S. right up to the Civil War.
No political or civil rights to protect slavesNo political or civil rights to protect slaves U.S. was the largest slave institution in the world by 1860U.S. was the largest slave institution in the world by 1860 U.S. produced 7/8’s of world’s cotton supplyU.S. produced 7/8’s of world’s cotton supply Peculiar Institution, to own another human being is immoral.Peculiar Institution, to own another human being is immoral. Cotton is King/King CottonCotton is King/King Cotton South was not willing to changeSouth was not willing to change Always felt isolated and threatened from the rest of the U.S.Always felt isolated and threatened from the rest of the U.S.
Chart/Net Earnings % of White to Black Population in 1860
Chart: Total Deaths About 1,150,000 Southern white families owned no slaves---75% About 384,000 Southern white families owned 1 slave or more--- 25% Total of 1,534,000 Southern white families in 1860……A total population of 7,981,000…. (Number of slaves) %
Statistically only 25% of Southern families owned slavesStatistically only 25% of Southern families owned slaves 384,000 Southern families owned 1 or more slaves.384,000 Southern families owned 1 or more slaves. 75% of Southern families did not own slaves.75% of Southern families did not own slaves.
Chart/slave owners Out of the 25% of slaveowners, here is the breakdown of the number of slaves. 75% owned 1 to 9 slaves. 22% owned 10 to 49 owned slaves. 3% owned 50 or more slaves. 384,000 1860
Quilt Patterns as Secret Messages The Monkey Wrench pattern, on the left, alerted escapees to gather up tools and prepare to flee; the Drunkard Path design, on the right, warned escapees not to follow a straight route.
Slaves resorted to revolts in the 13 colonies and later in the southern U.S.Slaves resorted to revolts in the 13 colonies and later in the southern U.S. 250 insurrections have been documented; between 1780 and 1864. 250 insurrections have been documented; between 1780 and 1864. 91 African-Americans were convicted of insurrection in Virginia alone.91 African-Americans were convicted of insurrection in Virginia alone. First revolt in what became the United States took place in 1526 at a Spanish settlement near the mouth of the Pee Dee River in South Carolina.First revolt in what became the United States took place in 1526 at a Spanish settlement near the mouth of the Pee Dee River in South Carolina.
Gabriel Prosser August 30, 1800 Governor James Monroe Prosser and some 35 of his young comrades were captured and hanged. Gabriel Prosser, (1776-1800), American leader of an aborted slave uprising, whose intention was to create a free black state in Virginia. Born near Richmond, he was the son of an African mother who instilled in him the love of freedom. Inspired perhaps by the success of the black revolutionaries of Haiti, he plotted with other slaves, notably Jack Bowler, in the spring of 1800 to seize the arsenal at Richmond and kill whites. On August 30, 1800, as many as 1000 armed slaves gathered outside Richmond ready for action. A torrential downpour and thunderstorm, however, washed away a bridge vital to the insurrectionists' march; at the same time Governor James Monroe, the future president, was informed of the plot and dispatched the state militia against them. Prosser and some 35 of his young comrades were captured and hanged.
The leader of an American slave revolt in Charleston, S.C., Denmark Vesey, b. Africa, 1767, d. July 2, 1822, had been owned by a slave-ship captain before he purchased his freedom (1800) with $600 won in a street lottery. As a freedman in Charleston, he worked at carpentry, became a leader of his church, and read antislavery literature. Determined to strike a blow against the institution that had victimized him, he devised an intricate conspiracy for an uprising in Charleston and vicinity during the summer of 1822. Informers divulged the plot, however, and 35 blacks, including Vesey, were executed.
Nat Turner Rebellion Nat Turner, 21st August, 1831, Nat Turner was executed on 11th November, 1831. Nat Turner, a slave owned by Joseph Travis of Southampton, Virginia, believed that he had been chosen by God to lead a slave rebellion. On 21st August, 1831, Turner and seven fellow slaves, murdered Travis and his family. Over the next two days and nights, Turner's band killed around 60 white people in Virginia. Turner had hoped that this action would cause a massive slave uprising but only 75 joined his rebellion. Over 3,000 members of the state militia were sent to deal with Turner's gang, and they were soon defeated. In retaliation, more than a hundred innocent slaves were killed. Turner went into hiding but was captured six weeks later. Nat Turner was executed on 11th November, 1831.
Nat Turner Rebellion Arrest of Nat Turner Tree Nat Turner was hung on Slave Revolts/Turner
Slave Revolts would lead plantation owners to develop a series of slave laws/codes which restricted the movement of the slaves. Slaves were not taught to read or writeSlaves were not taught to read or write Restricted to the plantationRestricted to the plantation Slaves could not congregate after darkSlaves could not congregate after dark Slaves could not possess any type of firearmSlaves could not possess any type of firearm A larger slave plantation than white in some statesA larger slave plantation than white in some states Slave owners wanted to keep their slaves ignorant of the outside world because learning about life beyond the plantation could lead to more slave revolts and wanting to escape. Slave Laws
Slave Codes of the State of Georgia, 1848 SEC. I. CAPITAL OFFENSES. 1. Capital crimes when punished with death. The following shall be considered as capital offences, when committed by a slave or free person of color: insurrection, or an attempt to excite it; committing a rape, or attempting it on a free white female; murder of a free white person, or murder of a slave or free person of color, or poisoning of a human being; every and each of these offences shall, on conviction, be punished with death.
Georgia Slave Code, 1848 2. Punishment of free persons of color for encouraging slaves 2. Punishment of free persons of color for encouraging slaves. If any free person of color commits the offence of encouraging or enticing away any slave or slaves, for the purpose of, and with the intention to aid and assist such slave or slaves leaving the service of his or their owner or owners, or in going to another state, such person so offending shall, for each and every such offence, on conviction, be confined in the penitentiary at hard labor for one year.
Georgia Slave Code, 1848 3. Punishment for teaching slaves or free persons of color to read. If any slave, Negro, or free person of color, or any white person, shall teach any other slave, Negro, or free person of color, to read or write either written or printed characters, the said free person of color or slave shall be punished by fine and whipping, or fine or whipping, at the discretion of the court.
Abolitionist Movement 1816 American Colonization Society created (gradual, voluntary emancipation. British Colonization Society symbol
Abolitionist Movement eCreate a free slave state in Liberia, West Africa. eNo real anti-slavery sentiment in the North in the 1820s & 1830s. GradualistsImmediatists
Abolitionists believed slavery was immoral…..Peculiar institution or it is odd, strange or weird to own another human being. Abolitionists argued slavery was immoral because it violated the ideals that this country was founded on. All men are created equal (DOI) If the U.S. was to succeed as a democratic society, slavery had to be abolished Abolitionists
Abolitionism: Division and Opposition Abolitionism forced the churches to face the question of slavery head-on, and in the 1840s the Methodist and Baptist churches each split into northern and southern organizations over the issue of slavery Even the abolitionists themselves splintered More conservative reformers wanted to work within established institutions, using churches and political action to end slavery Abolitionism forced the churches to face the question of slavery head-on, and in the 1840s the Methodist and Baptist churches each split into northern and southern organizations over the issue of slavery Even the abolitionists themselves splintered More conservative reformers wanted to work within established institutions, using churches and political action to end slavery
William Lloyd Garrison (1801-1879) eSlavery & Masonry undermined republican values. eImmediate emancipation with NO compensation. eSlavery was a moral, not an economic, issue. R2-4
Picture/Garrison Through his newspaper, The Liberator, William Lloyd Garrison spoke out against slavery and for the rights of black Americans for 35 years. The tone of the paper was established in the first issue of the paper with Garrison's editorial entitled, "To the Public,” “On this subject, I do not wish to think, or speak, or write, with moderation. No! no! Tell a man whose house is on fire, to give a moderate alarm; tell him to moderately rescue his wife from the hand of the ravisher; tell the mother to gradually extricate her babe from the fire into which it has fallen; -- but urge me not to use moderation in a cause like the present. I am in earnest -- I will not equivocate -- I will not excuse -- I will not retreat a single inch -- AND I WILL BE HEARD”. Garrison, a leader among American abolitionists, delivered his views with great conviction, as well as great foresight. "Posterity," he concluded in the editorial, "will bear testimony that I was right.”
The Liberator Premiere issue January 1, 1831 R2-5
Picture/Douglass Frederick Douglass Escaped slave in 1838 Mother was a slave and father was white Great speaker against slavery Bought his freedom for $600.00 Wrote his autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass Editor of the North Star--Abolitionist paper Friends with Garrison Organized the 54th Black Regiment of Mass Frederick Douglass Escaped slave in 1838 Mother was a slave and father was white Great speaker against slavery Bought his freedom for $600.00 Wrote his autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass Editor of the North Star--Abolitionist paper Friends with Garrison Organized the 54th Black Regiment of Mass
Reading/On Douglass After hearing Frederick Douglass speak in Bristol, England, in 1846, Mary A. Estlin wrote to an American abolitionist: “ There is but one opinion of him. Wherever he goes he arouses sympathy in your cause and love for himself…..Our expectations were highly roused by his narrative, his printed speeches, and the eulogisms of the friends with whom he has been staying: but he far exceeds the picture we had formed both in outward graces, intellectual power and culture and eloquence.”
Sojourner Truth (1787- 1883) or Isabella Baumfree 1850 The Narrative of Sojourner Truth R2-10
Harriet Tubman (1820-1913) eHelped over 300 slaves to freedom. e$40,000 bounty on her head. eServed as a Union spy during the Civil War. “Moses”
Picture/Stowe Harriet Beecher Stowe, Abolitionist, authored the book Uncle Tom’s Cabin Book was used as propaganda to show the inhumanity of slavery. Southerners were enraged by this book and called it “lies”.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 Sold 300,000 copies in the first year. 2 million in a decade! Sold 300,000 copies in the first year. 2 million in a decade!
Reading/Tom’s Cabin In the closing scenes of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel, Uncle Tom’s brutal master, Simon Legree, orders the $1200.00 slave savagely beaten (to death) by two fellow slaves. Through tears and blood Tom exclaims, “No! no! no! my soul ain’t yours Mas’r! You haven’t bought it-----ye can’t buy it! It’s been bought and paid for by One that is able to keep it. No matter, no matter, you can’t harm me!” “I can’t” said Legree, with a sneer; “we’ll see---- we’ll see! Here, Sambo, Quimbo, give this dog such a breakin’ in as he won’t get over this month!”
Economically profitable Slavery was in the Bible Duty of Southerners to Christianize the slaves, Positive Good Provided a better life for slaves than in Africa, Positive Good 5 th Amendment legalized and protected slavery because slaves were considered property.
Gag rule Gag rule was passed in Congress which nothing concerning slavery could be discussed. gag ruleanti- slavery petitions Under the gag rule, anti- slavery petitions were not read on the floor of Congress The rule was renewed in each Congress between 1837 and 1839. which refused to accept all anti-slavery petitions. In 1840 the House passed an even stricter rule, which refused to accept all anti-slavery petitions. On Dec 3, 1844, the gag rule was repealed
1. SOUTHERN SLAVERY THE PECULIAR INSTITUTION Prior to 1791 slavery was not profitable Cotton Gin----Eli Whitney---1791 South relied on cotton and slaves. Cotton production doubles every 10 years King Cotton 2. Southern society 3. Facts on Slavery 4. Why did the South fight a war to preserve slavery when ¾ of Southerner’s did not own slaves? American Dream
5. SOCIAL OUTCRY AGAINST SLAVERY Rise of abolitionists----1830 to 1860 William Lloyd Garrison Frederick Douglass Harriet Tubman Harriet Beecher Stowe Arguments For slavery Against slavery 6. Did slaves revolt against slavery? Slave revolts Slave codes