Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Byzantine Empire 1. Key Terms  1.Byzantine Empire: (395-1453) name historians give to the Eastern Roman Empire; it refers to Byzantium, the name of the.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Byzantine Empire 1. Key Terms  1.Byzantine Empire: (395-1453) name historians give to the Eastern Roman Empire; it refers to Byzantium, the name of the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Byzantine Empire 1

2 Key Terms  1.Byzantine Empire: ( ) name historians give to the Eastern Roman Empire; it refers to Byzantium, the name of the capital city before it was changed to Constantinople  2.Justinian I: ( ) Byzantine emperor from 527 to 565; he reunited the parts of the Roman Empire, simplified Roman laws with Justinian's Code, and ordered Hagia Sophia built. 2

3 Key Terms  3.Theodora: (died 548) Byzantine empress; she was married to Justinian and exerted a great influence over him and over the political and religious events of the empire.  4.Belisarius: (c ) Byzantine general under Justinian I; he led expeditions to overthrow the Vandal kingdom in North Africa and occupied parts of Italy for Justinian 3

4 Key Terms  5.mosaics: images created with tiny bits of colored tile fitted together and cemented into place  6.icon: a painting or carving of Jesus, the Virgin Mary, or a saint  7.clergy: church leaders  8.Orthodox Church: the church that followed the Eastern traditions of Christianity as opposed to the Western traditions 4

5 Key Terms  10.Yaroslav the Wise: ( ) Grand duke of Kiev from 1019 to 1054; he promoted Christianity and civilization in Russia and began a codification of the law  11.Cyril: (c ) Brothers and Christian missionaries. Greek monks sent to convert Slavs to Christianity; their use of the Slavonic language helped convert many Moravians to Christianity. They developed a written alphabet for the Slavonic language that became known as the Cyrillic alphabet. 5

6 Key Terms  12.Methodius: (c )Brothers and Christian missionaries; their use of the Slavonic language helped convert many Moravians to Christianity. They developed a written alphabet for the Slavonic language that became known as the Cyrillic alphabet.  13.Cryllic alphabet: an alphabet derived from the Greek alphabet and used for writing Slavic languages 6

7 Key Terms  14.Vladimir I: (c ) Grand prince of Kiev; he converted to Orthodox Christianity in the 980s and made it the state religion.  15.Alexander Nevsky: (c ) Russian hero; he defeated the Swedes and the Teutonic knights. As grand duke of Kiev, he was vassal of the Mongols, who controlled much of Russia at the time 7

8 Key Terms  16.Alfred the Great:: ( ) King of Wessex from 871 to 899; he defeated Danish invaders and united Anglo- Saxon England under his control. He compiled a code of laws and promoted learning.  17.Clovis: (c ) King of the Franks from 481 to 511; he established the kingdom of the Franks in the late 400s; according to legend, his victories convinced him to convert to Christianity. 8

9 Key Terms  18.medieval: the time period in western European history known as the Middle Ages  19.Christendom: term historians use to denote the society, concentrated in Western Europe, that developed in the Middle Ages in which people were linked by common customs and the Christian religion 9

10 Key Terms  20.Gregory the Great: (c ) Roman Catholic pope from 590 to 604; he restored monastic discipline and was zealous in propagating Christianity.  21.monasticism: voluntary separation from society, usually in monasteries, to dedicate one's life to God; prevalent in the Middle Ages 10

11 Key Terms  22.Augustine of Hippo: ( ) Early Christian church father and philosopher; his writings helped shape Christian doctrine for centuries, Wrote “The City of God”.  23.Benedictine Rule: a collection of rules or guidelines for monks and monasteries; named for Benedict of Nursia; widely used in Europe in the Middle Ages  24.abbot: the elected head of a monastery 11

12 12

13 Middle Ages / Medieval Period All the empires we have studied to this point have been referred to as ancient civilizations. All the empires we have studied to this point have been referred to as ancient civilizations. – Mesopotamia – Fertile Crescent – Egypt – India – China – Greece – Rome Ancient history is the study of the written past from the beginning of recorded human history until the Early Middle Ages in Europe. Ancient history is the study of the written past from the beginning of recorded human history until the Early Middle Ages in Europe. The Middle Ages or Medieval Period began with the fall of the Roman Empire in 476 A.D. and lasts to about The Middle Ages or Medieval Period began with the fall of the Roman Empire in 476 A.D. and lasts to about

14 The New Rome 395—Roman Empire split Roman Empire (West) & Byzantine Empire (East) 395—Roman Empire split Roman Empire (West) & Byzantine Empire (East) Greeks=most of Byzantine Empire’s population Greeks=most of Byzantine Empire’s population Wealthy families moved to Constantinople when barbarians invaded Rome Wealthy families moved to Constantinople when barbarians invaded Rome The Byzantine Empire’s preservation of its ancient Greco-Roman heritage was an important legacy that benefited later generations. The Byzantine Empire’s preservation of its ancient Greco-Roman heritage was an important legacy that benefited later generations. 14

15 The New Rome The Byzantine Empire was wealthy and produced: gold, silk, grain, olives and wine. It traded these for spices, ivory and precious stones from countries as far away as China and India along the Silk Road trade routes.Byzantine Empire 15

16 16

17 17

18 Constantinople (crossroads of Europe & Asia) Constantinople (crossroads of Europe & Asia) Bosporus & Dardanelles— 2 important waterways Bosporus & Dardanelles— 2 important waterways 18

19 Emperor Justinian Nicknamed “Emperor who never sleeps” Nicknamed “Emperor who never sleeps” 19

20 Theodora Justinian’s wife & advisor Justinian’s wife & advisor Allowed women to own land Allowed women to own land 532: Nika Revolt 532: Nika Revolt Theodora talked him into staying Theodora talked him into staying General Belisarius- put down revolt & won back Roman lands General Belisarius- put down revolt & won back Roman lands 20

21 Hippodrome- Chariot races (like Rome’s Circus Maximus) / 21

22 Justinian and Theodora Justinian ruled as an autocrat with the help of Theodora. He created a huge Christian empire. They served as co- rulers! Theodora The Byzantine Empire reached its greatest size under Justinian. Autocrat – ruler who has complete authority 22

23 Justinian and Theodora Justinian ruled as an autocrat with the help of Theodora. Created a huge Christian empire Empire reached its greatest size Built Hagia Sophia Built Hippodrome Created Justinian’s Code – which organized all the laws of ancient Rome.Created Justinian’s Code 23

24 Justinian’s Code Law code: Corpus of Civil Law (Justinian’s Code) Law code: Corpus of Civil Law (Justinian’s Code) Based on Roman laws Based on Roman laws du/halsall/basis/535in stitutes.html#XV.%20 Agnate%20Tutorshiphttp://www.fordham.e du/halsall/basis/535in stitutes.html#XV.%20 Agnate%20Tutorship. du/halsall/basis/535in stitutes.html#XV.%20 Agnate%20Tutorship 24

25 Justinian’s Code of Laws   Laws were fairer to women. They could own property and raise their own children after their husbands died.   Children allowed to choose their own marriage partners.   Slavery was legal and slaves must obey their masters.   Punishments were detailed and fit the crime   His work inspired the modern concept and, indeed, the very spelling of "justice". 25

26 Justinian and Theodora The Hagia Sophia was built after Justinian overthrew a revolt.Hagia Sophia 26

27 Justinian and Theodora Justinian ruled as an autocrat with the help of Theodora. Created a huge Christian empire Empire reached its greatest size Built Hagia Sophia Rebuilt the Hippodrome Hippodrome 27

28 28

29 Justinian wanted strength of old Roman Empire Justinian wanted strength of old Roman Empire By 554— reclaimed Italy, North Africa, & Spain from Germanic tribes By 554— reclaimed Italy, North Africa, & Spain from Germanic tribes Chemical weapon “Greek fire” Chemical weapon “Greek fire” After Justinian’s death, Germanic tribes reclaimed lands After Justinian’s death, Germanic tribes reclaimed lands Reclaiming the Western Empire After the fall of Rome, the eastern emperors did not give up their claim to the western part of the empire. The Byzantine emperor Justinian I, who reigned from 527 to 565, dreamed of restoring the original Roman Empire. 29

30 30

31 Christian Church Emperors crowned by Patriarch of Constantinople Emperors crowned by Patriarch of Constantinople Defend Christianity Defend Christianity Appoint Church officials Appoint Church officials 31

32 Icons (religious images) Icons (religious images) Iconoclasts (Christians) believed having icons was idol worship Iconoclasts (Christians) believed having icons was idol worship 726: Byzantine Emperor Leo III(chriatian)– destroyed icons 726: Byzantine Emperor Leo III(chriatian)– destroyed icons 787: Pope in Rome-- heresy not to allow icons (some couldn’t read & icons helped them learn Christianity) 787: Pope in Rome-- heresy not to allow icons (some couldn’t read & icons helped them learn Christianity) Church council threatened iconoclasts with excommunication Church council threatened iconoclasts with excommunication 32

33 33

34 Pope and Patriarch excommunicated each other Pope and Patriarch excommunicated each other 700s: Lombards invaded Italy, Byzantine emperor refused to help Pope 700s: Lombards invaded Italy, Byzantine emperor refused to help Pope Frankish leader helped--Pepin the Short—Pope gives him title “emperor” Frankish leader helped--Pepin the Short—Pope gives him title “emperor” 1054: SPLIT---WEST (Roman Catholic Church) EAST (Eastern Orthodox Church) 1054: SPLIT---WEST (Roman Catholic Church) EAST (Eastern Orthodox Church) 34

35  Church supported marriage (sacred institution) – Roman Catholic Priests not allowed to marry  Divorce - difficult to get 35

36 Trade: Trade: Goods from Asia & Europe Goods from Asia & Europe Silk Road Silk Road 2 Orthodox monk missionaries brought silkworms from China 2 Orthodox monk missionaries brought silkworms from China 36

37 Art- religious subjects Art- religious subjects Icons- displayed saints Icons- displayed saints Mosaics- pieces of tile or glass Mosaics- pieces of tile or glass Religious scholars used art in books Religious scholars used art in books Illuminated manuscripts (decorated books) Illuminated manuscripts (decorated books) 37

38 38

39 Literature focused on salvation, obedience to God, & preserving Greek & Roman works Literature focused on salvation, obedience to God, & preserving Greek & Roman works 39

40 Architecture 532: Church of Hagia Sophia (meaning “holy wisdom”) in Constantinople 532: Church of Hagia Sophia (meaning “holy wisdom”) in Constantinople 40

41 Cyril & Methodius-- missionaries Cyril & Methodius-- missionaries 860: Cyril created alphabet for Slavic, so they could translate the religious texts of Byzantine Christianity for the Slavs 860: Cyril created alphabet for Slavic, so they could translate the religious texts of Byzantine Christianity for the Slavs Cyrillic Alphabet- used by Russia today Cyrillic Alphabet- used by Russia today Cyril and Methodius successfully converted many Moravians to Christianity because they spoke the Slavonic language. Cyril and Methodius successfully converted many Moravians to Christianity because they spoke the Slavonic language. 41

42 42

43 AD 1071—Seljuk Turks threaten Constantinople AD 1071—Seljuk Turks threaten Constantinople Byzantine emperor asked Pope to help “defend Christianity” Byzantine emperor asked Pope to help “defend Christianity” Europeans went to Palestine to fight Muslims-Crusades (holy wars) Europeans went to Palestine to fight Muslims-Crusades (holy wars) 43

44 1204—Venetians looted Constantinople 1204—Venetians looted Constantinople 1453—Ottoman Turks attacked 1453—Ottoman Turks attacked Byzantine emperor killed Byzantine emperor killed End of Byzantine Empire End of Byzantine Empire 44

45 The End of the Byzantine Empire The Byzantine empire drew to a close in 1453 when forces from the Muslim Ottoman Empire surrounded and conquered Constantinople.Byzantine empire Muslim Ottoman Empire The ancient Christian city was renamed Istanbul and became the capital of the Ottoman Empire. 45

46 The Rise of Russia 46

47 47

48 The Slavs Steppe- treeless grassland Steppe- treeless grassland Taiga- thick forests Taiga- thick forests Long, cold winters Long, cold winters 3 major rivers 3 major rivers Dnieper Dnieper Dniester Dniester Volga Volga All flow North to South 48

49 49

50 The Eastern Slavs Setting and People Setting and People 3 major ethnic groups lived in the area north of the Black Sea 3 major ethnic groups lived in the area north of the Black Sea 1.) Western Slavs 1.) Western Slavs Poles, Czechs, Slovaks Poles, Czechs, Slovaks Close ties to Roman Catholic Church and Western Europe Close ties to Roman Catholic Church and Western Europe 2.) Southern Slavs 2.) Southern Slavs Serbs, Croats, Slovenes Serbs, Croats, Slovenes Located on the northern part of the Balkan Peninsula Located on the northern part of the Balkan Peninsula Lots of contact with the Byzantines Lots of contact with the Byzantines 3.) Eastern Slavs 3.) Eastern Slavs Largest group Largest group Ukranians, Russians, Belarussians Ukranians, Russians, Belarussians Lived between the Dnieper and Dniester Rivers Lived between the Dnieper and Dniester Rivers 50

51 Kievan Rus 800s AD- Vikings from Scandinavia (Norway, Denmark, Sweden) settled town of Novgorod 800s AD- Vikings from Scandinavia (Norway, Denmark, Sweden) settled town of Novgorod Vikings=Ruotsi=Rus=Russia Vikings=Ruotsi=Rus=Russia Kiev (major trading village) Kiev (major trading village) Kiev grew into group of principalities called Kievan Rus Kiev grew into group of principalities called Kievan Rus 51

52 52

53 Principalities ruled by princes Principalities ruled by princes Grand Prince—like emperor Grand Prince—like emperor Princes—paid tribute to GP Princes—paid tribute to GP Boyars—landowners Boyars—landowners Artisans & merchants Artisans & merchants Peasants Peasants 53

54 54

55 55

56 988 AD—Grand Prince Vladimir I adopted Christianity & Cyrillic Alphabet 988 AD—Grand Prince Vladimir I adopted Christianity & Cyrillic Alphabet Yaroslav the Wise ( ) Yaroslav the Wise ( ) 1 st library of Kiev 1 st library of Kiev Built churches, created 1 st law code Built churches, created 1 st law code Yaroslav successfully dealt with western Europe by arranging marriages between his daughters and European princes. Yaroslav successfully dealt with western Europe by arranging marriages between his daughters and European princes. the main threat to Kievan Rus following the death of Yaroslav the increasing power of princes within the state’s borders the main threat to Kievan Rus following the death of Yaroslav the increasing power of princes within the state’s borders 56

57 57

58 The Mongols 58

59 1240—Mongols invaded lead by Batu Khan, ended Keivan Rus dominance 1240—Mongols invaded lead by Batu Khan, ended Keivan Rus dominance The Mongols did not bring destruction and devastation to much of Russia because a Russian prince discouraged rebellions against Mongol conquerors. The Mongols did not bring destruction and devastation to much of Russia because a Russian prince discouraged rebellions against Mongol conquerors. 59

60 1240—Alexander “Nevsky” defeated Swedes at Neva River 1380—Mucovites (people of Moscow) defeated Mongols at Battle of Kulikovo 60

61 1493—Ivan III ruler of Moscow refused to pay Mongol taxes, made himself sovereign of all Russia— “Ivan the Great” 1493—Ivan III ruler of Moscow refused to pay Mongol taxes, made himself sovereign of all Russia— “Ivan the Great” Orthodox Church called Russia the “3 rd Rome” Orthodox Church called Russia the “3 rd Rome” 61

62 Ivan the Great Ruled from Ruled from Successfully overthrew the Tatars (Mongols) Successfully overthrew the Tatars (Mongols) United Russia United Russia 62

63 63

64 Ivan IV “the terrible” Paranoid- mentally unstable Paranoid- mentally unstable Killed his own son Killed his own son Massacre at Novgorod Massacre at Novgorod Took title czar “caesar” Took title czar “caesar” 64

65 Ivan the Terrible Ruled Ruled Grandson of Ivan III 1 st Tsar of Russia Began eastward expansion of Russia Used handpicked militia to rape, loot, burn, kill and torture in the Tsar's name 65

66 basil-cathedral-exterior.jpg 66

67 67

68 68

69 Christian European Society Christianity confined to southern Europe Christianity confined to southern Europe Medieval-Middle ages, full of suffering, doubt and hardship Medieval-Middle ages, full of suffering, doubt and hardship Offered comfort and a happy afterlife, sense of community Offered comfort and a happy afterlife, sense of community 69

70 Spreading Christianity Augustine of Canterbury was responsible for the successful introduction of Christianity to England Augustine of Canterbury was responsible for the successful introduction of Christianity to England Many Europeans became missionaries Many Europeans became missionaries Patrick went to Ireland Patrick went to Ireland Faced hostility from Irish leaders Faced hostility from Irish leaders 460 nearly all of Ireland was Christian 460 nearly all of Ireland was Christian Christendom- Christian society in western Europe Christendom- Christian society in western Europe 70

71 Strengthening the Papacy Middle ages pope had little authority Middle ages pope had little authority Pope was just another bishop Pope was just another bishop Gregory the Great-as successor to Peter, pope was supreme patriarch of the Church Gregory the Great-as successor to Peter, pope was supreme patriarch of the Church Strengthened papacy, canon law, monasticism Strengthened papacy, canon law, monasticism Separation from society Separation from society 71

72 Sharing Beliefs Faith interpreted differently as it spread Faith interpreted differently as it spread Church studied this and made official responses Church studied this and made official responses Augustine of Hippo-writings helped shape Christian doctrine Augustine of Hippo-writings helped shape Christian doctrine Used ideas of Plato Used ideas of Plato “City of God” Pay less attention to the material world “City of God” Pay less attention to the material world 72

73 Monks and Monastaries Pope Gregory increasing emphasis on Monks Pope Gregory increasing emphasis on Monks Gregory was a monk before pope Gregory was a monk before pope Monasticism gained popularity Monasticism gained popularity Egyptian Monks lived alone as hermits Egyptian Monks lived alone as hermits Monks lived in monasteries and shared rules Monks lived in monasteries and shared rules 73

74 Monks and Monasteries Two types of monastic life Two types of monastic life Similar rules Similar rules Communal life Communal life Based on labor Based on labor Worship Worship Scholarship Scholarship Life in monastaries might be different Life in monastaries might be different 74

75 Benedictines Most common form of monasticism Most common form of monasticism Benedict of Nursia wrote the rules Benedict of Nursia wrote the rules 500’s called Benedictine rules 500’s called Benedictine rules 529 established a monastery at Monte Cassino 529 established a monastery at Monte Cassino 75

76 Monks During the Middle Ages, groups of monks began living together in monasteries and abiding by a strict code of rules. During the Middle Ages, groups of monks began living together in monasteries and abiding by a strict code of rules. 76

77 Benedictines Abbot- leader of monks Abbot- leader of monks Benedictine order- took vows of poverty and obedience Benedictine order- took vows of poverty and obedience Combination of prayer and labor Combination of prayer and labor 9 prayer and work periods 9 prayer and work periods Farm labor, copying manuscripts Farm labor, copying manuscripts 77

78 Benedictine Each on its own Each on its own Trained the finest minds in the middle ages Trained the finest minds in the middle ages Preserved knowledge of Greece and Rome Preserved knowledge of Greece and Rome Centers of wealth Centers of wealth Nobles donated money and gifts in exchange for prayers Nobles donated money and gifts in exchange for prayers 78

79 Celtic Monasteries Developed in Ireland Developed in Ireland Monks were more severe Monks were more severe Long fasts Long fasts Days in solitary confinement Days in solitary confinement Build on small islands Build on small islands Isolation help to focus on faith Isolation help to focus on faith 79

80 Celtic Monasteries Led by abbots Led by abbots Had more authority then Benedictines Had more authority then Benedictines Bishop most important religious figure Bishop most important religious figure Ireland had few large cities Ireland had few large cities People turned to the abbots People turned to the abbots 80

81 Celtic Monastaries Lindisfarne most famous Lindisfarne most famous Gospels are the most beautiful illustrated manuscript Gospels are the most beautiful illustrated manuscript Greatest artistic achievements of middle ages Greatest artistic achievements of middle ages 81

82 Celtic monks were scholars Celtic monks were scholars Preserved ancient knowledge Preserved ancient knowledge Spread Christianity to British Isles Spread Christianity to British Isles Some monks traveled to France Some monks traveled to France 82


Download ppt "Byzantine Empire 1. Key Terms  1.Byzantine Empire: (395-1453) name historians give to the Eastern Roman Empire; it refers to Byzantium, the name of the."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google