Presentation on theme: "History 11 End of the Byzantine/Rise of Russia. Decline After the great schism (1054), the Byzantine empire was declining. The constant wars were catching."— Presentation transcript:
Decline After the great schism (1054), the Byzantine empire was declining. The constant wars were catching up with the empire. Powerful local lords started to emerge and gain control of large areas. This created problems internally. The peasants were no longer a dominate force.
Seljuks The nomadic people of Asia minor called the Seljuks had converted to Islam. One unique aspect of Islam that is similar to Christianity is the need to convert others. When the Seljuks migrated they took Islam into the Byzantine empire. They made up the Ottoman Turks as well.
4 th Crusade This leads to the 4 th crusade. In the 1090’s the emperor asked for help from their western Christian brothers. The routes to Jerusalem had been cut off and the Byzantine wanted help getting it back. But the pope turns on them. The 4 th crusade was about trade. Venice wanted to control the trade of Constantinople Western Christians sacked and took it. After that Venice stole all the trade from them.
Ottoman Take Over In 1453, the Ottoman Empire surrounded the city and laid siege. After 2 months they broke down the walls. The Ottoman Turks were Muslim. They took over the ancient Christian city and renamed it Istanbul. They turned Hagia Sophia into a Muslim Mosque. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oH- E9uH1nYshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oH- E9uH1nYs
Ottoman Take Over The fall of the Byzantine Empire signified the complete end of the Roman Empire. It was also a large attack on Christendom. Many Popes and many different people have desired to start crusades to regain the ancient Christian city but nothing ever happened. Istanbul emerged as a great center of Muslim culture.
Russia Russia lies on the Eurasian plain that reaches from Europe to the borders of China. There are 3 broad climate zones that helped shape early Russian life. The northern forest, supplied lumber and fur. The south had fertile land for farming. The steppe was an open, treeless grassland that was great for herds and horses. Nomads stayed here.
Growth of Kiev The Slavs expanded into southern Russia. Similar to the Germanic people the Slavs had clans and lived in small villages, farmed, and traded. They formed small villages in the region farmed and traded along the rivers.
Vikings In the 700s and 800s the Vikings took out of Scandinavia by ship. They worked their way through Russian rivers, trading and collecting tribute from the Slavs. Right in the middle of their trade network was the city of Kiev. Within a few generations, the Vikings were absorbed into the local culture.
Kiev Kiev was also highly influenced by the Byzantine empire. Some Christian missionaries around 863 who wanted to convert the Slavs. translated the Bible into Slavic languages. They took the Greek alphabet and adapted it. It was called the Cyrillic alphabet and it became the written script used in Russia and Ukraine to the present.
Kiev The influence really took off when King Vladimir converted to Byzantine Christianity. It gained strength in Russia. The heirs saw themselves in many ways connected to the byzantine empire. Russians adapted Byzantine art, architecture and music. They also accepted political ideas. Like controlling the church. This created the Russian Orthodox church.
Yaroslav The golden age of Russia took place under Yaroslav the wise from 1019 to 1054. He issued a code of law to improve justice. The translated works into his language and he arranged marriages to keep the royal family pure. After him the royal families faded and fought over who would rule. Mongols attacked and decided for them.
Mongol Conquest In the 1200s a young man who wanted to unite all the nomad tribes appeared. He gathered all the bowmen and gave them a cause. He took the name Genghiz Khan (World Emperor). The Mongol nation impacted several different cultures.
Mongol The grandson of Genghiz Khan, named Betu led the Mongol army into Russia. The Mongols looted and burned Kiev. They came in with their golden tents and ruled over Russia for the next 240 years. It was called the Golden Horde. The Mongols only required tribute. They allowed cultures to remain intact.
Quiz 1.Who were the Seljuks? 2.What religion were the Ottoman Turks? 3. Name the 3 climate zones of Russia? 4.What is the name of the Russian alphabet? 5.What does Genghiz Kahn mean?