Presentation on theme: " In 2000 B.C., city-states, political units made up of a city and its surrounding lands, were founded Greece had a lasting impact on modern civilization;"— Presentation transcript:
In 2000 B.C., city-states, political units made up of a city and its surrounding lands, were founded Greece had a lasting impact on modern civilization; both their governments and culture are reflected in Europe today A series of internal and external conflicts with Persia resulted in Greece’s downfall Alexander III of Macedon created a huge empire that spread Greek culture but broke apart after his death
Rome was a republic, a government in which citizens elect representatives to rule in their name Later, it became an empire, and conquered many oversea territories, which led to civil unrest in Italy Christianity was born in Palestine, a Roman territory, and spread throughout the empire from there By 395 A.D., the empire had split; the western half was conquered by Germanic invaders within a century, while the eastern half lasted 1,000 years longer
Italy became divided into many small states after the fall of Rome During the Crusades, Italy became rich through banking and foreign trade In the 14 th century, it became the birthplace of the Renaissance, which spread north from there Italy’s wealth did not protect it from disease; in 1347, the black plague killed millions.
Muslims from North Africa conquered the Iberian Peninsula in the 700s The Catholics in Spain drove the Muslims out in 1492 Also in 1492, Christopher Columbus discovered America; Spain and Portugal were the first to establish colonies around the world
Mediterranean nations are less industrial than those of Northern and Western Europe In the late 20 th century, the region’s economy evolved into one of manufacturing Greece, Portugal, and Spain strengthened their trade when they joined the European Union
The region still faces economic challenges, such as Italy’s northern half being more developed than its southern half The entire Mediterranean region has poor energy resources, forcing them to rely heavily on imported petroleum
Italy and Spain saw the rise of dictators during World War II The Basques of the Pyrenees have had an ongoing fight independence with Spain City growth has led to housing shortages, pollution, and traffic jams
France and Germany are the dominant countries in Western Europe Resources, ports and trade routes helped them to build productive economies After the Roman Empire conquered the Celtic Tribes, Latin was born French is one of the Roman languages After Charlemagne died, his empire began to fall apart
During the Renaissance, people began to question the Catholic Church In 1517, Martin Luther published 95 statements that criticized church practices that were wrong The Reformation was a period where many Christians broke away from the Catholic Church and started Protestant churches Most of Western Europe is either Protestant or Catholic
During the centuries after Rome fell, feudalism- a political system in which powerful lords own land, came in Europe Nationalism is the belief that people should be loyal to their country People became upset that the King had all the power, so they rebelled. This was called the French Revolution Western Europe experienced industrial growth in the 1800’s
The nationalistic rivalry and competition for land in Europe helped spark WWI The Allied Powers won, and caused hate on Germany This hate on Germany caused WWII. Germany was led by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi’s Adolf Hitler caused the Holocaust- a program of mass murder of Jewish people After Germany lost in 1945, it split into East and West Germany
Western Europe is rich in Agriculture Belgium, France, the Netherlands and Switzerland export Dairy products Western Europe leads the industry because of Iron ore and coal Electronics is a major part of the Netherlands France has a TGV, the fastest train on the planet
Western Europe is a popular tourist location It is also a leading exporter in luxurious goods, as it exports to all over the world Germany has had economic problems ever since reuniting in 1992 The east is suffering due to out-of-date factories and products
Northern Europe was settled by waves of migrating people The Roman Empire conquered Great Britain and held it until its decline, when it was taken from Germanic tribes During the Middle Ages, seafaring warriors, known as the Vikings, terrorized Europe by conducting hit-and-run raids on coastal towns. In the 11 th century, William the Conqueror of Normandy subjugated England and began to rule over it.
Denmark, Sweden, and Norway were all strong kingdoms, but none ever became an empire On the other hand, Great Britain built an empire that affected the entire world Britain had the geographic advantage of being an island; no army could get to it without going through their navy Great Britain had so many colonies, that it was always day in some part of the empire
The absolute monarchy of England became limited by a parliament This was done by the signing of the Magna Carta These ideas spread on to the colonies of Britain
Large deposits of iron and coal helped Britain to be the first nation to industrialize After WWII, the British Empire changed, as nearly all its colonies gained independence Britain still faces the problem of Irish Independence; only part of Ireland has been given its freedom
Sweden and the United Kingdom both have many aerospace, paper, food, and pharmaceuticals industries in common Northern Europe has plenty of natural resources: Sweden exports timber, Iceland relies on its fishing, and Norway utilizes a large portion of the North Sea oil
Technology has rapidly changed Europe’s economy, and become a major part of many countries’ industries There is a controversy about the European Union, which pressures the European nations to join it Europeans also have mixed feelings about adopting the euro, which many do not feel is best for their country
Most people of Northern Europe speak a Germanic language The Reformation also helped unite the region’s religious belief: the majority are Protestant
The Nordic countries have an influence on many modern arts, including theater and film Great Britain’s William Shakespeare had a strong impact on literature; well after his time, his plays are still performed and adapted for movies
The governments of Europe take great responsibility for the people, resulting in many benefits but high taxes The people of these countries are also known for their distinctive countries Even though these countries have some of the coldest climates, outdoor sports remain popular
Eastern Europe is a cultural crossroads, a place where people of various cultures meet; since ancient times, people moved between Asia and Europe through here By 100 A.D., this area was held by the Romans; it was held by the Byzantine Empire until the 14 th century, when it was taken over by the Ottoman Empire Austria drove the Ottomans out of the region, but later the area was divided up among Prussia, Russia, and themselves
By the 20 th century, Greece, Bulgaria, Montenegro, Romania, and Serbia had gotten their independence from the Ottomans They were constantly fighting over pieces of territory, which led to the creation of a new word: balkanization, referring to a region breaking up into small, mutually hostile units The turmoil in this area eventually led to World War I, when a Serbian assassinated an Austrian noble When the war was over, the Ottoman Empire split into Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Turkey, and Yugoslavia During World War II, Germany conquered most of this region; after the war, Eastern Europe became a region of satellite nations of Russia
By the late 1980’s the Soviet Union had economic problems, and Eastern Europe was given more freedom All the Eastern European countries gave up communism for democracy Instability followed, as loyalty was now transferred to ethnic groups, leading to the area’s balkanization
Under communism, the government owned all factories, so production was not very efficient Eastern Europe traded with the Soviet Union, so technology produced in democratic nations was not given to them; the type of factories they used also created a lot more pollution The dramatic switch to a market economy caused problems such as inflation and unemployment
Some nations have had trouble making economic progress Albania’s growth is slowed by old equipment, a lack of raw materials, and a shortage of educated workers Romania’s citizens do not have money to invest in business, and foreigners do not want to The civil wars of 1990 in former Yugoslavia damaged many buildings, and either killed or forced workers to emigrate from the country It will take years for these countries to overcome the damage of communism
The area has many languages, making it difficult for the region to unify Many religions are prominent in the area, which also contributes to the diversity Many different ideologies have influences on this region, causing the different ethnic groups to have unique cultural activities
Eastern Europe is less urbanized than most of Europe As its cities grow pollution, traffic jams, and housing shortages will become problems Many ethnic groups have strong dislikes of others, leading to conflicts Many minority groups in Eastern Europe face discrimination To become a true democracy, they need to relinquish old enmities, and work together.
The Black Death was a period in history where sickness was common, and between 30 and 60 percent of Europe’s population died, or 20-50 million people. The pandemic began in China or Central Asia, where infected rats were shipped to Europe and many got infected. It returned various times until the plague left for good in the 19 th century It took Europe 150 years for its population to recover.
The Black Death was caused by bacteria called Yersinia pestis. This bacteria was held in fleas and rats. Once humans were infected, they would die within 3-7 days. The mortality rate was between 30-75% (records at this time were very inaccurate) for the Bubonic plague, 95% for the Pneumonic plague, and close to 100% for the Septicemic plague
The classic sign was if you had a “bubo”, which were usually found in the groin, the armpits and the neck, which all bled and oozed pus. Signs also include fever, headaches, aching joints, nausea, vomiting for the bubonic plague. For the Pneumonic plague, it was fever, cough, and blood- tinged sputum. For the Septicemic Plague, it was high fevers and purple skin patches