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 In 2000 B.C., city-states, political units made up of a city and its surrounding lands, were founded  Greece had a lasting impact on modern civilization;

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Presentation on theme: " In 2000 B.C., city-states, political units made up of a city and its surrounding lands, were founded  Greece had a lasting impact on modern civilization;"— Presentation transcript:

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3  In 2000 B.C., city-states, political units made up of a city and its surrounding lands, were founded  Greece had a lasting impact on modern civilization; both their governments and culture are reflected in Europe today  A series of internal and external conflicts with Persia resulted in Greece’s downfall  Alexander III of Macedon created a huge empire that spread Greek culture but broke apart after his death

4  Rome was a republic, a government in which citizens elect representatives to rule in their name  Later, it became an empire, and conquered many oversea territories, which led to civil unrest in Italy  Christianity was born in Palestine, a Roman territory, and spread throughout the empire from there  By 395 A.D., the empire had split; the western half was conquered by Germanic invaders within a century, while the eastern half lasted 1,000 years longer

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6  Italy became divided into many small states after the fall of Rome  During the Crusades, Italy became rich through banking and foreign trade  In the 14 th century, it became the birthplace of the Renaissance, which spread north from there  Italy’s wealth did not protect it from disease; in 1347, the black plague killed millions.

7  Muslims from North Africa conquered the Iberian Peninsula in the 700s  The Catholics in Spain drove the Muslims out in 1492  Also in 1492, Christopher Columbus discovered America; Spain and Portugal were the first to establish colonies around the world

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9  Many of the languages spoken in Europe today are derived from Latin, the language of Rome  The split of the Roman Empire also caused a split in Christianity, separating Orthodox from Catholicism

10  Many architectural ideas from that era impact design today  This region also has an artistic legacy; many famous painters and sculptors were born here

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12  Mediterranean nations are less industrial than those of Northern and Western Europe  In the late 20 th century, the region’s economy evolved into one of manufacturing  Greece, Portugal, and Spain strengthened their trade when they joined the European Union

13  The region still faces economic challenges, such as Italy’s northern half being more developed than its southern half  The entire Mediterranean region has poor energy resources, forcing them to rely heavily on imported petroleum

14  Italy and Spain saw the rise of dictators during World War II  The Basques of the Pyrenees have had an ongoing fight independence with Spain  City growth has led to housing shortages, pollution, and traffic jams

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17  France and Germany are the dominant countries in Western Europe  Resources, ports and trade routes helped them to build productive economies  After the Roman Empire conquered the Celtic Tribes, Latin was born  French is one of the Roman languages  After Charlemagne died, his empire began to fall apart

18  During the Renaissance, people began to question the Catholic Church  In 1517, Martin Luther published 95 statements that criticized church practices that were wrong  The Reformation was a period where many Christians broke away from the Catholic Church and started Protestant churches  Most of Western Europe is either Protestant or Catholic

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20  During the centuries after Rome fell, feudalism- a political system in which powerful lords own land, came in Europe  Nationalism is the belief that people should be loyal to their country  People became upset that the King had all the power, so they rebelled. This was called the French Revolution  Western Europe experienced industrial growth in the 1800’s

21  The nationalistic rivalry and competition for land in Europe helped spark WWI  The Allied Powers won, and caused hate on Germany  This hate on Germany caused WWII. Germany was led by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi’s  Adolf Hitler caused the Holocaust- a program of mass murder of Jewish people  After Germany lost in 1945, it split into East and West Germany

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23  Western Europe is rich in Agriculture  Belgium, France, the Netherlands and Switzerland export Dairy products  Western Europe leads the industry because of Iron ore and coal  Electronics is a major part of the Netherlands  France has a TGV, the fastest train on the planet

24  Western Europe is a popular tourist location  It is also a leading exporter in luxurious goods, as it exports to all over the world  Germany has had economic problems ever since reuniting in 1992  The east is suffering due to out-of-date factories and products

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26  Many famous musicians came from Germany, like Beethoven  Mozart came form Austria  Painters in Western Europe paint with great realism  They use oil paints

27  Western Europe cities have good transportation, and lots of entertainment  Many people socialize in café’s when the weather is nice  Conflicts in Germany include Immigration, and overpopulation

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30  Northern Europe was settled by waves of migrating people  The Roman Empire conquered Great Britain and held it until its decline, when it was taken from Germanic tribes  During the Middle Ages, seafaring warriors, known as the Vikings, terrorized Europe by conducting hit-and-run raids on coastal towns.  In the 11 th century, William the Conqueror of Normandy subjugated England and began to rule over it.

31  Denmark, Sweden, and Norway were all strong kingdoms, but none ever became an empire  On the other hand, Great Britain built an empire that affected the entire world  Britain had the geographic advantage of being an island; no army could get to it without going through their navy  Great Britain had so many colonies, that it was always day in some part of the empire

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33  The absolute monarchy of England became limited by a parliament  This was done by the signing of the Magna Carta  These ideas spread on to the colonies of Britain

34  Large deposits of iron and coal helped Britain to be the first nation to industrialize  After WWII, the British Empire changed, as nearly all its colonies gained independence  Britain still faces the problem of Irish Independence; only part of Ireland has been given its freedom

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36  Sweden and the United Kingdom both have many aerospace, paper, food, and pharmaceuticals industries in common  Northern Europe has plenty of natural resources: Sweden exports timber, Iceland relies on its fishing, and Norway utilizes a large portion of the North Sea oil

37  Technology has rapidly changed Europe’s economy, and become a major part of many countries’ industries  There is a controversy about the European Union, which pressures the European nations to join it  Europeans also have mixed feelings about adopting the euro, which many do not feel is best for their country

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39  Most people of Northern Europe speak a Germanic language  The Reformation also helped unite the region’s religious belief: the majority are Protestant

40  The Nordic countries have an influence on many modern arts, including theater and film  Great Britain’s William Shakespeare had a strong impact on literature; well after his time, his plays are still performed and adapted for movies

41  The governments of Europe take great responsibility for the people, resulting in many benefits but high taxes  The people of these countries are also known for their distinctive countries  Even though these countries have some of the coldest climates, outdoor sports remain popular

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43  Eastern Europe is a cultural crossroads, a place where people of various cultures meet; since ancient times, people moved between Asia and Europe through here  By 100 A.D., this area was held by the Romans; it was held by the Byzantine Empire until the 14 th century, when it was taken over by the Ottoman Empire  Austria drove the Ottomans out of the region, but later the area was divided up among Prussia, Russia, and themselves

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45  By the 20 th century, Greece, Bulgaria, Montenegro, Romania, and Serbia had gotten their independence from the Ottomans  They were constantly fighting over pieces of territory, which led to the creation of a new word: balkanization, referring to a region breaking up into small, mutually hostile units  The turmoil in this area eventually led to World War I, when a Serbian assassinated an Austrian noble  When the war was over, the Ottoman Empire split into Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Turkey, and Yugoslavia  During World War II, Germany conquered most of this region; after the war, Eastern Europe became a region of satellite nations of Russia

46  By the late 1980’s the Soviet Union had economic problems, and Eastern Europe was given more freedom  All the Eastern European countries gave up communism for democracy  Instability followed, as loyalty was now transferred to ethnic groups, leading to the area’s balkanization

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48  Under communism, the government owned all factories, so production was not very efficient  Eastern Europe traded with the Soviet Union, so technology produced in democratic nations was not given to them; the type of factories they used also created a lot more pollution  The dramatic switch to a market economy caused problems such as inflation and unemployment

49  Some nations have had trouble making economic progress  Albania’s growth is slowed by old equipment, a lack of raw materials, and a shortage of educated workers  Romania’s citizens do not have money to invest in business, and foreigners do not want to  The civil wars of 1990 in former Yugoslavia damaged many buildings, and either killed or forced workers to emigrate from the country  It will take years for these countries to overcome the damage of communism

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51  The area has many languages, making it difficult for the region to unify  Many religions are prominent in the area, which also contributes to the diversity  Many different ideologies have influences on this region, causing the different ethnic groups to have unique cultural activities

52  Eastern Europe is less urbanized than most of Europe  As its cities grow pollution, traffic jams, and housing shortages will become problems  Many ethnic groups have strong dislikes of others, leading to conflicts  Many minority groups in Eastern Europe face discrimination  To become a true democracy, they need to relinquish old enmities, and work together.

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54  The Black Death was a period in history where sickness was common, and between 30 and 60 percent of Europe’s population died, or million people.  The pandemic began in China or Central Asia, where infected rats were shipped to Europe and many got infected.  It returned various times until the plague left for good in the 19 th century  It took Europe 150 years for its population to recover.

55  The Black Death was caused by bacteria called Yersinia pestis. This bacteria was held in fleas and rats.  Once humans were infected, they would die within 3-7 days.  The mortality rate was between 30-75% (records at this time were very inaccurate) for the Bubonic plague, 95% for the Pneumonic plague, and close to 100% for the Septicemic plague

56  The classic sign was if you had a “bubo”, which were usually found in the groin, the armpits and the neck, which all bled and oozed pus.  Signs also include fever, headaches, aching joints, nausea, vomiting for the bubonic plague.  For the Pneumonic plague, it was fever, cough, and blood- tinged sputum.  For the Septicemic Plague, it was high fevers and purple skin patches


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