2 ReformationBegan in the 1500s and was a movement to correct problems in the Catholic Church.Christians break away from the Catholic Church and started Protestant churches.Religious wars tore apart Europe.
4 United Kingdom: - built a Global Empire in 1800’s England took control of its neighbors: Wales, Ireland, & Scotland1801: Northern Ireland, England, Wales, & Scotland became known as the United Kingdom (UK ).1800s: England wanted to gain more resources and markets so they colonized the Americas, Asia, and AfricaResult = English language spread and now spoken in more countries worldwide.
5 During Industrial Revolution Machines replaced hand toolsSteam power replaced human & animal powerPeople continued to farm, but the economy began to shift towards manufacturing
6 1700s: Industrialization Begins in Britain Industrialization occurred in Europe: led to growth of factories - New technologies developed that transformed the textile industry1764 Spinning Jenny: by James Hargreaves – spun several threads at onceRichard Arkwright’s Water Frame – held 100 spindles of thread; water powered
7 The Irish FamineBritish seized land from Catholics & gave it to Protestants.Left Irish in poverty1840s – potato crops failed & caused famine –severe food shortage .Over 1 million Irish Immigrated to other countries and to U.S.1921 – Republic of Ireland gained independence
8 What happened to Eastern European Countries after WWII?
10 Soviet Union After World War II During WWII: Soviet Union advanced through Eastern Europe – part of the Allied strategy to crush GermanyAfter WWII: Soviet Union refuses to leave the Eastern countriesSoviet Union set up Communist governments & dominated many Eastern European countries - became Soviet Satellite Nations
11 What happened to Germany after WWII? Germany was divided and occupied by:Britain - OrangeFrance - BlueU.S. - YellowSoviet Union - Pink
12 Germany After WWII*Germany divided after WWII: Controlled by Britain, France, U.S., and Soviet UnionGermany split into two nations after WWII:West Germany – democratic governmentEast Germany – Communist governmentCapital City of Berlin also split into two parts and Berlin Wall was built to separate the Eastern section1989 – Berlin Wall is brought down1990 East and West Germany reunited– with a democratic government.
15 Anti-Semitism Anti-Semitism is discrimination against Jewish people Nazis were anti-Semitic: they murdered millions of European Jews - called the.
16 Serbia and Ethnic Cleansing Serbia never forgot that they were defeated in Kosovo.In the 1990s, Kosovo was inhabited by Albanians, whose religion was Islam.Serbia, led by Slobodan Milosevic, began a campaign of ethnic cleansing against the Albanians in Kosovo.1999: NATO started bombing Serbia, and Milosevic withdrew his troops from Kosovo.
17 Timeline World War I – 1914-1918 World War II – 1939-1945 (Holocaust) After WWII: Communist domination in Eastern Europe by Soviet Union1989 Berlin Wall fallsMore freedom & elections – independenceRepublics of Yugoslavia – 1990’s: 4 of the 6 separate --- civil war follows
19 Continued:Led to Balkanization: the process of breaking up a region into several small, hostile states.Serbia tries to free the Slavs in Austria-Hungary1914 – a Serb assassinated an Austrian noble which starts World War I
20 War After War in the Balkans Balkan nations = Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, Romania, & SerbiaOttomans controlled the Balkans; Balkans gained freedom in 1908; fought again in 1912Balkan countries fought over who should control the remaining Ottoman territory they won
21 Crusades in 1096 Renaissance European Christians fight a series of wars to take Palestine from the Muslims.Some Italian city-states became rich from selling supplies to ships taking part in the Crusades.Renaissance from the 14th thru 16th centuriesBegan in Rome, Italy.Renewed interest in learning and the arts & stressed classical culture (art & writings).Scholars question authority.Renaissance