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Presentation on theme: "FOOD SAFETY FOOD BORNE DISEASES WHAT FOODS ARE SUSCEPTIBLE?"— Presentation transcript:


2 Objectives List several implications of foodborne illness
Explain what biological, chemical, and physical hazards are List some microorganisms of greatest concern Identify key practices for preventing food hazards from contaminating food Provide overview of HACCP system


4 What’s Your Knowledge? (T or F)
Foodborne illnesses are mostly caused by physical hazards, such as fingernails, glass, etc. getting into food. Young children are more susceptible to foodborne illnesses than adults. Improperly cooled foods can lead to foodborne illnesses.

5 What’s Your Knowledge? (T or F)
Time and temperature controls are the best methods to prevent microorganisms from growing in food. The best way to prevent hazards from causing foodborne illness is to have good sanitation and personal hygiene programs.


7 Today’s Concerns Children: “At-Risk People” New microbes
New research findings Use of fresh produce Children-More likely to become seriously ill that adults Inadequate immune systems Evolving- Pathogens unknown to humans Research- New practices for controlling and eliminating microorganisms Produce- Contaminated water, production chemicals Improper handling

8 Today’s Concerns 5. Food prepared away from home
International marketing and travel Consolidation of food production/ processing Food industry employees Employee turnover rates Reliance-Mishandling 50 billion meals away from home per day International- Different food traditions and handling practices Increased exposure Consolidation- Magnified mistakes in large production Employee- Difficult to be effective

12 % Food from unsafe sources 63% Improper STORAGE temperature 28% Poor personal hygiene 23% Contaminated equipment 21% Inadequate cooking 20% Other things

10 Types of Food Contamination
Biological – bacteria, mold, fungus, parasites, viruses and other toxins Chemical – accidental contamination with chemicals throughout the product chain Physical – accidental contamination with objects due to employee carelessness

11 Common Causes of Foodborne Illnesses
Holding food too long in “danger zone” (41oF to 140oF) Not heating or cooking to proper temperature Not cooling properly (to 70oF or lower within 2 hours, and from 70oF to 41oF within 4 hours)

12 Common Causes of Foodborne Illnesses
Not reheating properly (to at least 165oF for 15 seconds within 2 hours) Poor personal hygiene Cross-contaminating food

13 Cross - Contamination Improper food handling practices
The transfer of harmful substances or microorganisms to food by other food, equipment and/or utensils, and people Causes Improper food handling practices Poor employee personal hygiene Improper cleaning and sanitizing of equipment/utensils

14 Cross - Contamination People are main agents of cross-contamination
So, it is important to: Follow practices to prevent cross-contamination Follow time/temp control to prevent the growth of microorganisms in food CNP employees must: Follow prevention practices Know common causes of foodborne illness Do all that is possible to eliminate them

15 Activity Homework Activity:
List the common causes of food contamination What are some of the measures food service workers can use to prevent foodborne illness?

16 Food Safety Hazards Harmful substances that can contaminate food
3 types of Hazards Biological Chemical Physical

17 Biological Hazards Include bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi that can cause illness Are present in natural environment where food is grown Cause more foodborne illnesses than other hazards

18 Bacteria Living, single-celled, microscopic organisms
Ex: Salmonellae and E.coli O157:H7 2 types of bacteria as biological hazards Pathogenic: cause infections Toxigenic: produce harmful toxins

19 Bacteria Can be transmitted by Water Wind Insects Plants Animals

20 Bacteria Thrive in Scabs and wounds The mouth, nose, throat Intestines
Foods from plants and animals that are Warm, moist, rich in protein, and neutral or low in acid

21 Bacteria Can survive on clothes, skin, and hair
Some survive freezing, or high temperatures Can be prevented from causing foodborne illnesses by proper time/temperature controls

22 Viruses Small, simple, incomplete particles - Ex: Hepatitis A virus
Transmitted by Water and food People and animals Utensils and equipment Food-contact areas

23 What are Foodborne Diseases?
Botulism, Cholera, Campylobacteriosis, Cryptosporidiosis, Cyclosporiasis, E. coli O157:H7, Hemolytic uremic syndrome, Listeriosis, Salmonellosis, Shigellosis, Trichinosis, Typhoid fever, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Yersiniosis Pathogens that contaminate food and water; when ingested cause illness

24 Campylobacteriosis Associated with handling raw poultry or eating raw or undercooked poultry meat. Infectious disease caused by the bacteria Campylobacter. Symptoms: diarrhea, cramping, abdominal pain, and fever. Chickens are the food source that carries the disease. Prevention: Cook all poultry thoroughly, Wash hands with soap, use separate cutting boards, carefully clean countertops, cutting boards, and utensils. Lasts 2 to 10 days

25 Escherichia coli O157:H7 Symptoms: severe bloody diarrhea and abdominal cramps Associated with eating meat that has not been cooked sufficiently to kill E.coli. Prevention: Cook all ground beef thoroughly, wash hands, counters, and utensils, and wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly. Lasts 5 to 10 days Ground beef is the food source that carries the disease. Produces a powerful toxin, which causes severe illness. One of the hundreds of strains of the bacterium E.coli.

26 Salmonellosis Lasts 4 to 7 days
Prevention: cook poultry, ground beef, and eggs thoroughly, do not eat raw eggs or unpasteurized milk, wash hands (reptiles and birds) Symptoms: diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps. Associated with contaminated foods: beef, poultry, milk, eggs, and vegetables. Salmonellosis is an infection with a bacteria called Salmonella. Important that restaurants, hospitals, and nursing homes use pasteurized egg as a prevention method.

27 Shigellosis Lasts 5 to 7 days
Prevention: wash hands, eat foods that are cooked properly, dispose of diapers properly. Symptoms: diarrhea, fever, and stomach cramps. Associated with eating contaminated food (vegetables) Shigellosis is an infectious disease caused by a group of bacteria called Shigella. Contamination by flies

28 Hepatitis A viruses Cause inflammation of the liver
Often transferred by an infected employee May be carried in cold cuts, sandwiches, fruits, vegetables, and milk products Controlled by sanitation and good personal hygiene

29 Listeria Causes listeriosis, a serious disease for pregnant women, newborns and adults with a weakened immune system; Sources: soil and water. It has been found in dairy products including soft cheeses as well as in raw and undercooked meat, in poultry and seafood, and in produce

30 Vibrio Causes gastroenteritis or a syndrome known as primary septicemia. People with liver diseases are especially at high risk; Sources: raw or undercooked seafood

31 Toxoplasmosis A parasite that causes toxoplasmosis, a very severe disease that can produce central nervous system disorders particularly mental retardation and visual impairment in children. Pregnant women and people with weakened immune systems are at higher risk; Sources: meat, primarily pork

32 Clostridium botulinum
This organism produces a toxin which causes botulism, a life-threatening illness that can prevent the breathing muscles from moving air in and out of the lungs. Sources: home-prepared foods and herbal oils; honey should not be fed to children less than 12 months old

33 Staphylococcus This bacterium produces a toxin that causes vomiting shortly after ingesting; Sources: cooked foods high in protein (e.g. cooked ham, salads, bakery products, dairy products)

34 Viruses May survive freezing and cooking Need living host cells Cannot
Live by themselves Grow and multiply on food

35 Viruses To keep viruses from causing foodborne illnesses
Prevent cross-contamination Practice proper personal hygiene Realize the importance of handwashing

36 Fungi A group of organisms that range from microscopic, single-celled to very large multicellular organisms Ex: molds, yeasts, and mushrooms

37 Fungi: Molds Grow as a tangled, fuzzy mass; can spread rapidly
Grow on most foods at most storage temperatures Some, on cheeses, are a natural part of the food Molds can spoil food by discoloration and unpleasant smell and taste

38 Fungi: Molds Some produce toxins linked to cancer in animals
Cause serious infections and allergies Discard moldy foods where mold is not a natural part of the food

39 Fungi: Yeasts Spoil food by consuming them
Require sugar and moisture to survive Produce carbon dioxide and alcohol Cause pink discoloration or sliminess Cause food to bubble No evidence that yeasts cause foodborne illness Spoiled food should be discarded

40 Parasites Organisms that need a host to survive
Hosts are people, animals, or plants Ex: Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis

41 Parasites Infections are caused by
Undercooked meats, fish Cross-contamination Eliminate parasites from causing foodborne illnesses Cook foods to proper internal temperatures Prevent cross-contamination Use frozen foods

42 Important Illness-Causing Microorganisms
Important to determine: Potential for contamination Likely sources Preventive measures to take

43 Bacterial Growth A single bacterium at 10am today has a doubling time of 20 minutes By 8pm, there will be 1,000,000,000 Bacteria have not taken over the planet because growth is limited at about one billion per gram or ml due to: Using up of all nutrients End product poisoning Limit of space

44 Chemical Hazards Sanitizers and cleaners Detergents Polishes Caustics
Cleaning and drying agents Pesticides Lubricants

45 Prevent Chemical Hazards
Keep cleaners/sanitizers in original containers with clear labels Store cleaners/sanitizers separately from food Use proper amount of chemicals Wash hands when through with chemicals

46 Prevent Chemical Hazards
Wash fresh produce with plain water, brush Monitor pest control operators Keep food covered during pesticide applications Clean and sanitize equipment that may have come into contact with pesticide Limit access to chemicals

47 Physical Hazards Physical objects that contaminate food Glass Bone
Plastic Personal effects Metal shavings

48 Prevent Physical Hazards
Inspect equipment Avoid temporary “make-shift” repairs Remove staples from food boxes Use razor blades in secure devices Inspect raw materials Wear proper attire Avoid loose jewelry, acrylic nails, polish Use proper hair restraints

49 Prevent Physical Hazards
Store food in approved containers and bags Use commercial scoops to scoop ice Use separate ice for storage and for beverages Store toothpicks and non-edibles away from prep area Cover glass bulbs in preparation area Regularly clean can openers Throw away broken or chipped tableware


51 Chemical Contaminants
Intentional Food Additives Use of materials which enhance the acceptability of the products and/or aid in the development of the product Unintentional Food Additives

52 Chemical Contaminants Con’t
Residues This includes both food processing component residues as well as PESTICIDES, ANTIBIOTIC OR HORMONE IMPLANT residues Natural Toxicants Product Tampering Nutritional Components

53 What is HACCP? Stands for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point.
So what is HACCP anyway? It stands for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point. It might sound like something from outer space but actually it was for outer space. It was designed by the Pillsbury company in the early 1960s for the U.S. space program. They needed a system to help ensure that the food being prepared for U.S. astronauts was virtually 100% risk-free. Prior to HACCP, before sending food into space, they’d test it for contamination and if it was contaminated, they’d start over and make more food. We don’t have expensive testing equipment in school food service so how do we know if our food is contaminated? One or more people become ill. That’s right. You don’t know until after the food has been served and it’s too late to do anything about it! A HACCP system identifies points at which the food might become contaminated and then puts controls in place to prevent the food from becoming contaminated at those points. HACCP is different because it is preventative rather than reactive. The term HACCP may sound technical and scary (and if you’ve ever taken a course on traditional HACCP, you probably feel that HACCP is very technical and a bit scary) but HACCP really is just a common-sense approach to food safety. Was designed in the 1960s to create 100% risk-free food for U.S. astronauts. Is preventative rather than reactive. Is a common-sense approach to food safety.

54 Potentially Hazardous Foods
Any food or food ingredient capable of supporting rapid growth of microorganisms. Raw or cooked foods of animal origin meats, poultry, dairy, eggs, fish, seafood Cooked foods of plant origin Vegetables such as potatoes and beans Starches such as rice and pasta Some other foods cut melons, garlic in oil, tofu A potentially hazardous food is defined as any food or food ingredient capable of supporting rapid growth of microorganisms. Specific examples include… Raw or cooked foods of animal origin such as meats, poultry, dairy products, eggs, fish and seafood. Cooked foods of plant origin including vegetables such as potatoes and beans and starches such as rice and pasta. (This does not apply to unopened containers of commercially processed foods such as cans of kidney beans.) Some other foods (foods of plant origin that contain raw seed sprouts) such as cut (but not whole, uncut) melons, garlic in oil and tofu.

55 Foods Commonly Associated with Foodborne Illness
Foods of animal origin Fresh fruits Fresh vegetables Do you remember we said that foods that belong in the “other” category are those that are either not potentially hazardous foods or are not foods commonly associated with foodborne illness? Which foods on this list are potentially hazardous? Foods of animal origin. Are plant foods potentially hazardous? Only after they have been cooked (and melons after they have been cut). Have you heard about any fresh, raw fruits and vegetables that caused a foodborne illness outbreak? Allow two or three to mention cases if known or share your own examples. One recent case that received a lot of media attended was Hepatitis A traced back to green onions. The fruits and vegetables themselves are often safe but because they are often eaten raw, we must be extremely careful in how we handle them so that we don’t transfer anything dangerous to them and allow them to contaminate other fresh fruits and vegetables. They therefore must be put into a process and must be handled accordingly. Are you ready to look at the three processes?

56 Be Food Safe

57 The Division of Foods is Based on Complete Trips Through the Temperature Danger Zone
Think of each process in terms of the number of trips that the foods make through the temperature danger zone. In Process 1, there is no cook step and no complete trip through the danger zone. In Process 2, the same day cook and serve, the food makes only ONE trip through the temperature danger zone. It starts cold (or at room temperature), we cook it to temperatures above 140oF and then we hold it there until we serve it. In Process 3, the complex (or multi-cook), the food makes TWO OR MORE complete trips through the temperature danger zone. It starts cold (or at room temperature), we cook it to temperatures above 140oF (that’s trip #1), we cool it down (that’s trip #2) and then we may heat it back up to serve it (that’s trip #3). Note that the food can (and usually will) start at temperatures below 41 degrees F and will be cooked or heated to temperatures above 140 degrees F. Also note that you do not take into account how the food was processed before it arrived at your facility. Your HACCP plan is written on how to handle the food once it arrives at your loading dock or door so you only consider if or how many times it passes through the temperature danger zone after you receive it. Let’s move on to the procedures for ensuring that the food is kept safe. 2 1 3 1 41oF No Cook Process 1 Same Day Process 2 Complex Process 3

58 Step 1: Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)
Definition Written instructions for the things you do on a regular basis to ensure that your customers receive safe food Requirement Must be in writing, adapted for your facility, included in your HACCP plan and followed by all staff Expectation Adapt the 20 provided by KSDE Examples Hand washing, use of thermometers, storage The first step, and the first section of the HACCP plan, is called Standard Operating Procedures (or SOPs for short). These are the things we all do, all day long, every day to keep food safe. For example, we wash our hands, we use thermometers to take temperatures and we prevent cross-contamination by storing fresh fruits and vegetables above raw meat. What’s new is that now we have to have all of these procedures in writing, adapted for each facility, they have to be included in the HACCP plan and they have to be followed by all staff. The good news is that the National Food Service Management Institute (NFSMI) has written 20 SOPs specifically for schools based ont eh process Approach to HACCP and KSDE has revised them specifically for Kansas based on requirements in the current (1999) Kansas Food Code. With very little effort, they can be adapted for each sponsor. (Very few need to be altered for each site because the wording is generic e.g. ‘supervisory employee.’) Look at the examples provided in the Participant Booklet. If planned, tell them when you will play KSDE’s HACCP (Jeopardy) Game on SOPs and HACCP.

59 Step 2: Categorize Menu Items
Process 1 – Food Preparation with No Cook Step Process 2 – Food Preparation for Same Day Service Process 3 – Complex Food Preparation Other – Foods that are not potentially hazardous and that are not commonly associated with foodborne illnesses The second step is to divide all of the foods that you prepare or purchase into one of the three processes or to determine that it falls into the “other” category. Let’s look at how to do that, starting with foods that do not need to be put into a ‘process.’ These are the foods that do not need special attention.

60 Step 3: Identify Control Measures
& Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) The things done on a regular basis to ensure that all food is kept safe Critical Control Points (CCPs) The specific points in the flow of food through the operation at which a hazard can be reduced, eliminated or prevented. Food may be consumed at this point so this is the last defense. It is the “kill” or “control” step. After you’ve mastered the SOPs and you know which process group each of your foods belongs in, you’re ready to identify control measures. At this point, you ask yourself… when does this food have the opportunity to become contaminated and what must I do to prevent it from being contaminated? The control measures have two parts. You always have to apply the SOPs. They are standard practice; they are a part of everything we do. The other part is called ‘critical control points’ or CCPs for short. This is the term we use to refer to those crucial points when the food is most likely to become contaminated so we have to be extra careful when handling it. To keep the food safe, we have to know what the critical limits are. What are the critical limits for hand washing? 110 degrees F (required in the 1999 Kansas Food Code) for 20 seconds. What are the critical limit for leftovers? Heat to 165 degrees F for a minimum of 15 seconds within 2 hours or less. In Kansas, we must cook food to the minimum internal temperatures established by the Kansas State Department of Education. Refer to the temperature chart in the Participant Booklet. Some of the temperatures they require are slightly higher than those required by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE – also referred to as ‘The Health Department’ for short) because in schools we cook for young children who are more at risk for foodborne illnesses. Critical Limit Time and/or temperature that must be achieved or maintained to control a food safety hazard

61 Step 4: Establish Monitoring Procedures
Why should monitoring take place? To ensure that the written HACCP plan is being followed correctly and is working well How will monitoring be done? Observations, check sheets, signing off on logs Who will monitor? Supervisory or other designated employees How often will they monitor? As needed - continuously, daily, weekly, monthly The fourth step is to establish monitoring procedures. The management team (or the director, head cook, etc.) is required to make sure that the things included in the written plan are in fact being done by everyone in the kitchen and that the plan is working the way it is supposed to. It’s not enough to write a great plan and then file it away in a drawer and hope that everyone does their job the right way. Someone has to be responsible for following up. How will they do that? Well, first of all, you all need to observe each other. If you notice that someone doesn’t wash their hand when they should, kindly remind them to wash their hands. If you see someone taking a temperature incorrectly, kindly remind them the correct way to take temperatures. You are all responsible for each other because you are all responsible for preparing and serving safe food. Someone in each kitchen should also use a check sheet to help them monitor the effectiveness of the staff and the HACCP system. If you see someone walking around with a clipboard writing things down and you feel like you’re being evaluated, well, you are! We all are. But it’s for the good of our customers. It’s not personal and it’s not because your manager want to be mean or because they want more paperwork. They are required by law so have records to show how well you are all doing in the kitchen. So just keep up the good work. If the monitoring procedure identifies weak spots, work together to strengthen them. Who will do this monitoring? That depends on your kitchen. We already said you all need to observe each other but who will complete the check sheet and sign off on temperature logs? It may be a supervisory employee but it can be anyone. In your kitchen, maybe it works best to have a different employee complete the check sheet each time. Your director will need to decide what works best in your facilities. How often do you need to monitor? Again, that depends on your facility. Observations must be ongoing. The check sheet and the signing off on logs should be completed at least monthly and more often at first or if weak spots are found.

62 Step 5: Establish Corrective Actions
What is a corrective action? A planned step you take when a food does not meet a critical limit Key features of corrective actions Measurable, specific, based on facts, appropriate for normal working conditions Goal of corrective action Determine and eliminate the cause Bring the CCP within critical limits Prevent the deviation from reoccurring Ensure safety of the food served The fifth step is to take corrective action. Corrective action is what you do when the critical limit isn’t met. Read the goals of corrective action from the slide. Point out that the first two are often easier than the third one but that in order to accomplish the fourth goal, we must prevent the deviation from reoccurring and this means that we have to figure out why the corrective action was needed. That is, what went wrong. Let’s practice with a case study (or case studies as time allows). Activity 3: Determining Corrective Actions Supplies: “Determining Corrective Actions” (provided in Part 1: Administration) “Scenarios for Temperature Corrective Action” (provided in Participant Booklet) “Answer Key for Scenarios for Temperature Corrective Action” (provided at end of Participant Booklet Procedure: Using the notes on the “Determining Corrective Actions” in Part 1: Administration, read the scenario, ask the questions and discuss the answers. If short on time, point out the case studies in the Participant Booklet and the answer key at the end of the booklet and suggest that they look at it after class. If you have time available and a small group, discuss one or more case studies as a group and ask the participants to call out the correct corrective actions. Tell them where the answers are only after they have discussed the cases and discuss as time allows. If you have time available and a large group, divide the participants into groups of 3-5, assign one case study to each group and have them write down their answers (recommended corrective actions) in their Participant Booklets. Discuss the answers as a class. Estimated Time: 5 – 20 minutes

63 Activity Discussion Questions Review Questions Case Study
(Choose among next 11 slides)

64 Case Study 1 Barbara cuts up uncooked chicken on a cutting board and then rinses the knife and the cutting board in warm water. Then, she uses the same board to slice melons. What is wrong with what she did? What microorganisms could contaminate the food because of this practice?

65 Case Study 2 Your CNP served macaroni and cheese, salad, and fresh apples for lunch. Two children became sick. Their mothers claim that it was from the food they ate at lunch. The food service director says that could not be possible because there was no meat on the menu. Is this food service director correct? Explain.

66 Case Study 3 Jill, a new employee, is unloading some buns that have just arrived. The cover of one box is torn. It is not known where the tear occurred. What should she do with the box of buns?

67 Case Study 4 Tom is putting some ingredients in the refrigerator. He puts the lettuce salad for today’s lunch under a pan of some uncooked chicken. What is wrong with what he did? Why?

68 Case Study 5 Martha is cooking some hamburger patties for lunch. She cooks them until they are brown and the juices run clear. Then she puts them in a warmer until they are ready to be served. What is wrong with what she did?

69 Case Study 6 Bill is serving tuna noodle casserole for lunch. He needs another pan of it but he just started to reheat it. He needs to serve it in a hurry. He touches the side of the pan and it seems hot. He decides to serve it as is. What is wrong with what he did?

70 Case Study 7 Maya is serving macaroni and cheese. She is wearing gloves. Her eyes begin to water and tear so she wipes away a tear with the back of her hand. She continues serving the macaroni and cheese. What is wrong with what she did?

71 Case Study 8 Steak soup has been delivered to Riley Day Care from the central kitchen. The delivery truck was late and the child care worker needs to serve the food right away. The containers feel hot, so she does not check the temperature before serving. What is wrong with that?

72 Case Study 9 Chicken fajitas have been delivered to the Boy's and Girl’s Club from the central kitchen. They are supposed to arrive cold and the food service assistant is to reheat them. When he takes the chicken out of the transport boxes, the containers feel like they are at room temperature. He reheats the chicken for five minutes and then serves it. What is wrong with what he did?

73 Case Study 10 Frank has just finished cutting up chicken. He wipes that area he used with a clean cloth and then rinses the cloth thoroughly. Later he uses the same cloth to wipe out the salad bowl before the lettuce salad is put in it to be served for lunch. What is wrong with what he did?

74 Case Study 11 Anita has just finished cutting up melon. She wipes the area she used with a clean cloth and rinses the cloth thoroughly. She uses the same cloth to wipe out the bowl before the cut melon is put in it to be served for lunch. What is wrong with what she did?


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